Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
<!--}}}-->
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<<importTiddlers>>
<!--{{{-->
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
<!--}}}-->
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' role='banner' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
</div>
<div id='mainMenu' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' role='complementary' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea' role='main'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<!--}}}-->
/*{{{*/
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

.header {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.headerShadow {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerForeground {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.headerForeground a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}

.tabSelected {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
}
.tabUnselected {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.tabContents .button {border:0;}

#sidebar {}
#sidebarOptions input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizard h1 {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:none;}
.wizard h2 {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:none;}
.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
	border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
.wizardFooter .status {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

.wizard .notChanged {background:transparent;}
.wizard .changedLocally {background:#80ff80;}
.wizard .changedServer {background:#8080ff;}
.wizard .changedBoth {background:#ff8080;}
.wizard .notFound {background:#ffff80;}
.wizard .putToServer {background:#ff80ff;}
.wizard .gotFromServer {background:#80ffff;}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.readOnly {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:alpha(opacity=60);}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0; top:0;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 0.3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0 0; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
/*}}}*/
/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' role='navigation' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<!--}}}-->
Welcome to Out of Nature the Web site.

This site explores plant biodiversity and our relationship with nature against a backdrop of scientific discovery, particularly plant-based natural products drug discovery, which is the subject of my [[book|The Book]] //Out of Nature: Why Drugs From Plants Matter to the Future of Humanity// (University of Arizona Press, 2012).

Under [[The Plants]], readers will find a taxonomic list of the plants discussed in the book, as well as other plants of value in natural products drug discovery.

The section [[Biophilia Hypothesis]] offers a discussion about E.O. Wilson's theory, with a link to my article written for //Encyclopaedia Britannica//.

On the [[Photos]] page, visitors have an opportunity to see wonderful photography by Jeremy D. Rogers. Some of his photographs appear in //Out of Nature//. 

Go to [[Reviews and Interviews]] to see what people have to say about //Out of Nature//.

[[Resources]] offers the complete listing of papers, books, and other sources that I consulted during the writing of //Out of Nature//. A selection of these sources appears in the published bibliography.

<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Acanthus family

<<list filter [tag[Acantha]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Acora]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Acoral]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Chinese gooseberry family

<<list filter [tag[Actin]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Agava]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Agavaceae
Latin name: //Agave// L.
Native range: Southwestern United States and Mexico; several species native to South America

Back to [[Agavaceae|Agavaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Oxalidales
Family: Cephalotaceae
Latin name: //Cephalotus follicularis// Labill.
Native range: Western Australia 
Conservation status: Vulnerable

Back to [[Cephalotaceae|Cephalotaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Alismatal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Amaranth family

<<list filter [tag[Amarantha]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Amaryllis family

<<list filter [tag[Amaryll]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)
Latin name: //Dodecatheon meadia// L.
Native range: Midwestern to southeastern United States

Back to [[Primulaceae|Primulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae (aralia family)
Latin name: //Panax quinquefolius// L.
Native range: Eastern and central North America
Conservation status: Listed as CITES Appendix II species

Back to [[Aralia|Aralia]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Meliaceae (mahogany family)
Latin name: //Amoora rohituka// (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. (//Aphanamixis polystachya// (Wall.) R. Parker)
Native range: China, India, and Southeast Asia

Back to [[Meliaceae|Meliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Apiales
Family: Umbelliferae (or Apiaceae; umbellifer family)
Latin name: //Angelica glauca// Edgew.
Native range: China and Indian subcontinent

Back to [[Umbelliferae|Umbelliferae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Apial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Dogbane family

<<list filter [tag[Apocyn]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Holly family

<<list filter [tag[Aquifolia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Aquifolial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ara]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Aralia family

<<list filter [tag[Aralia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae (heather family)
Latin name: //Arbutus// L.
Native range: North America and Mediterranean region, including parts of northern Africa, southern Europe, and western Asia
Conservation status: Several species listed as vulnerable or lower risk/conservation dependent

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Palmae, or palm family

<<list filter [tag[Areca]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Arecal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Latin name: //Zantedeschia aethiopica// (L.) Spreng.
Native range: South Africa

Back to [[Araceae|Araceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Asclepia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Centaurea depressa// M. Bieb.
Native range: Eastern Europe and temperate and tropical regions of Asia

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae (aralia family)
Latin name: //Panax ginseng// C.A. Mey
Native range: Changbai Mountains of China and far-eastern Russia
Conservation status: Listed as CITES Appendix II species

Back to [[Aralia|Aralia]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Aspara]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Asparagal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Compositae, or daisy family

<<list filter [tag[Astera]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Asteral]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae (lily family)
Latin name: //Erythronium montanum// S. Watson
Native range: Northwestern United States and British Columbia

Back to [[Liliaceae|Liliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Malpighiaceae 
Latin name: //Banisteriopsis caapi// (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton
Native range: South America

Back to [[Malpighiaceae|Malpighiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae (mint family)
Latin name: //Scutellaria baicalensis// Georgi
Native range: Asia

Back to [[Lamiaceae|Lamiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae 
Latin name: //Banksia// L.f.
Native range: Australia

Back to [[Proteaceae|Proteaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae (laurel family)
Latin name: //Laurus nobilis// L.
Native range: Southern Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa

Back to [[Lauraceae|Lauraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae (mint family)
Latin name: //Callicarpa// L.
Native range: Eastern and central North America; Mexico and the Caribbean; South America; temperate and tropical Asia; and Australia
Conservation status: C. maingayi K. & G., native to Malaysia and Singapore, lower risk/least concern; and C. ampla Schauer, native to Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, critically endangered

Back to [[Lamiaceae|Lamiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis family)
Latin name: //Amaryillis belladonna// L.
Native range: South Western Cape, South Africa

Back to [[Amaryllidaceae|Amaryllidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Barberry family

<<list filter [tag[Berberi]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae (true grass family)
Latin name: //Andropogon gerardii// Vitman
Native range: Prairies of North and Central America

Back to [[Poaceae|Poaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae (soapberry family)
Latin name: //Acer macrophyllum// Pursh
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Sapindaceae|Sapindaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
In the 1980s, E.O. Wilson introduced his theory that humans possess an innate attraction to nature, borrowing the term "biophilia" from psychoanalyst Erich Fromm. Fromm defined biophilia as “the passionate love of life and of all that is alive" in his 1973 work, //The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness//. Thus, our relationship with nature is reflected in our use of and interactions with plants and animals.

Biophilia is an underlying theme in //Out of Nature//. 

For more information on biophilia, see:
[[Biophilia Hypothesis|http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1714435/biophilia-hypothesis]], //Encyclopaedia Britannica//.
[[Human Needs vs. Human Behavior: Reexamining Our Relationship with Nature|http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2010/11/human-needs-vs-human-behavior-reexamining-our-relationship-with-nature/]]
[[Biophilia vs. Technophilia: Can Mother Nature and Technology Coexist?|http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/06/biophilia-our-relationship-with-nature/]] 

[img[Pics/grinnell1_small.jpg]]

<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Strelitziaceae
Latin name: //Strelitzia reginae// Aiton
Native range: South Africa

Back to [[Strelitziaceae|Strelitziaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Melanodendron integrifolium// (Roxb.) DC.
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: Vulnerable

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Blechna]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Vanda coerulea// Griff. ex Lindl.
Native range: Northeastern India and southern China

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae (mint family)
Latin name: //Rabdosia rubescens// (Hemsl.) Hara
Native range: China

Back to [[Lamiaceae|Lamiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: [[Caryophyllales]]
Family: Amaranthaceae (amaranth family)
Latin name: //Blutaparon rigidum// (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Mears
Native range: Galápagos Islands
Conservation status: Extinct

Back to [[Amaranthaceae|Amaranthaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Uncertain
Family: Boraginaceae (borage family)
Latin name: //Borago officinalis// L.
Native range: Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia

Back to [[Boraginaceae|Boraginaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Borage family
(order uncertain)
<<list filter [tag[Borag]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Cabbage, or mustard, family

<<list filter [tag[Brassica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Brassical]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family) 
Latin name: //Pinus longaeva// D.K. Bailey
Native range: Southwest region of United States and Rocky Mountains
Conservation status: Vulnerable

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family)
Latin name: //Rhamnus// L. 
Native range: Widespread
Conservation status: Several species listed as lower risk

Back to [[Rhamnaceae|Rhamnaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Bursera]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: [[Cucurbitales]]
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Latin name: //Cyclanthera pedata// (L.) Schrad.
Native range: South America

Back to [[Cucurbitaceae|Cucurbitaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Acorales
Family: Acoraceae
Latin name: //Acorus calamus// L.
Native range: Asia

Back to [[Acoraceae|Acoraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Theaceae 
Latin name: //Camellia// L.
Native range: East Asia
Conservation status: Multiple members of the genus listed as vulnerable or endangered

Back to [[Theaceae|Theaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Bellflower family

<<list filter [tag[Campan]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
Latin name: //Magnolia campbellii// Hook.f. & Thomson.
Native range: Himalayas

Back to [[Magnoliaceae|Magnoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae (laurel family)
Latin name: //Cinnamomum camphora// (L.) J. Presl.
Native range: India, China, and parts of Southeast Asia

Back to [[Lauraceae|Lauraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
Latin name: //Myrciaria dubia// (Kunth) McVaugh
Native range: South America
Conservation status: Threatened locally by overharvesting

Back to [[Myrtaceae|Myrtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae (primrose family) 
Latin name: //Primula pulverulenta// Duthie
Native range: Sichuan province of China

Back to [[Primulaceae|Primulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Honeysuckle family

<<list filter [tag[Caprifolia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Latin name: //Stapelia incarnata// L.f.
Native range: South Africa

Back to [[Apocynaceae|Apocynaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Caryophyllal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cephalo]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cerato]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ceratophyllal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Information on the story of the discovery of taxol:
* Ginsberg, Judah. "[[The Discovery of Camptothecin and Taxol®.|http://portal.acs.org/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_ARTICLEMAIN&node_id=926&content_id=CTP_004450&use_sec=true&sec_url_var=region1&__uuid=bea983f9-17a7-43ce-9d2a-9b8c8f171dda]]" //American Chemical Society//.
* Stephenson, Frank. "[[A Tale of Taxol.|http://www.rinr.fsu.edu/fall2002/taxol.html]]" //Florida State University Office of Research//. Fall 2002.
* Goodman, Jordan and Vivien Walsh. //The Story of Taxol: Nature and Politics in the Pursuit of an Anti-Cancer Drug//. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press (2001).

Reports describing the structure and anticancer activity of paclitaxel (taxol):
* Wani, M.C. et al. “Plant antitumor agents. VI. Isolation and structure of taxol, a novel antileukemic and antitumor agent from Taxus brevifolia.” //J. Am. Chem. Soc//. 93.9 (1971): 2325-2327.
* Schiff, Peter B., Fant, Jane and Susan B. Horwitz. “Promotion of microtubule assembly in vitro by taxol.” //Nature//. 277 (22 Feb. 1979): 665-667.

Information about the indigenous uses of taxol and the discovery of chemical precursors:
* Lewis, Walter H. and Memory P.F. Elvin-Lewis. //Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health//. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley (2003).

Information on the northern spotted owl and its protection:
* U.S. Forest Service. “[[The Northern Spotted Owl.|http://www.foresthistory.org/ASPNET/Policy/northern_spotted_owl/index.aspx]]” //Forest History Society//.

Speculation on the relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and academia:
* Hileman, Bette. “Accounting For R&D: Many Doubt The $800 Million Pharmaceutical Price Tag.” //Chemical and Engineering News//. 84.25 (19 June 2005): 50.

Details on expiring drug patents and the cost of research and development associated with bringing novel drugs to market:
* “[[Drug Companies Still Under Pressure to Increase Pace of Development.|http://csdd.tufts.edu/news/complete_story/pr_outlook_2010]]” //Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development//. 6 Jan. 2010.
* Drews, Jürgen and Ryser, Stefan, “The Role of Innovation in Drug Development.” //Nature Biotechnology//. 15 (1997): 1318-1319.

Information on the lack of new drugs in the pharmaceutical pipeline:
* Desai, Manoj C. and Samuel Chackalamannil. “Rediscovering the role of natural products in drug discovery.” //Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development//. 11.4 (2008): 436-437.
* Ji, Hong-Fang Ji, Li, Xue-Juan and Hong-Yu Zhang. “Natural products and drug discovery: Can thousands of years of ancient medical knowledge lead us to new and powerful drug combinations in the fight against cancer and dementia?” //EMBO Reports//. 10.3 (2009): 194-200.
* “[[New Approaches to R&D May Prove Best Path for Drug Developers.|http://csdd.tufts.edu/news/complete_story/rd_pr_april_2010]]” //Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development//. 6 April 2010.

Information on personalized medicine and modern approaches to drug discovery:
* Lester, David S. “Will Personalized Medicine Help in 'Transforming' the Business of Healthcare?” //Personalized Medicine//. 6.5(2009):555-565.
* King, Frank D. //Medicinal Chemistry: Principles and Practice//. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry (2002).

Information on technologies employed in modern drug development:
* Saunders, Kenneth C. “Automation and robotics in ADME screening.” //Drug Discovery Today: Technologies//. 1.4 (2004): 373-380.

Sir Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin:
* Fleming, Alexander. “Correspondence: Penicillin.” //British Medical Journal//. 13 Sept. 1941: 386.

The discovery of //Penicillium chrysogenum//:
* Scoutaris, M. “'Moldy Mary' and the Illinois Fruit and Vegetable Company.” //Pharm. Hist//. 38 (1996): 175–177.

Generation of penicillin at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory in Peoria, Illinois:
* Raper, Kenneth B. and Robert D. Coghill. “'Home Made' Penicillin.” //Journal of the American Medical Association//. 123.17 (1943): 1135.

Information on the historical background of drug discovery and development in the 20th century:
* American Chemical Society. //The Pharmaceutical Century: Ten Decades of Drug Discovery//. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society (2000). 

Details on Paul Ehrlich's contributions to synthetic chemistry:
* Strebhardt, Klaus and Axel Ullrich. “Paul Ehrlich's magic bullet concept: 100 years of progress.” //Nature Reviews Cancer//. 8 (June 2008): 473-480.

Plant production of antimicrobial compounds:
* Mahesh, B. and S. Satish. “Antimicrobial Activity of Some Important Medicinal Plant Against Plant and Human Pathogens.” //World Journal of Agricultural Sciences//. 4 (S; 2008): 839-843.

Information on the pharmaceutical industry's increased interest in natural products drug discovery:
* Rouhi, Maureen A. “[[Rediscovering Natural Products|31 Oct. 2003: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8141/8141pharmaceuticals.html]].” //Chemical and Engineering News//.
* Desai, Manoj C. and Samuel Chackalamannil. “Rediscovering the role of natural products in drug discovery.” //Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development//. 11.4 (2008): 436-437.

Information about bioactive molecules and medicinal chemistry:
* Colgate, S.M. and Russell J. Molyneux (eds.). //Bioactive Natural Products//. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press (2008).
* Wermuth, Camille Georges (ed.). //The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry//. 3rd ed. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/Academic Press (2008).
* Ramawat, Kishan Gopal and Jean-Michel Mérillon (eds.). //Bioactive Molecules and Medicinal Plants//. Berlin: Springer (2008).

The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups and its role in natural products drug discovery:
* “International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups.” //[[ICBG|http://www.icbg.org/]]//.
* “[[International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG)|http://www.fic.nih.gov/programs/research_grants/icbg/index.htm]].” //Fogarty International Center, NIH//.
* Hayden, Cori. “Can Pharmaceutical Research Give Back?” //ReVista Harvard Review of Latin America//. Winter 2005.

Information on Ayurvedic medicine, the Vedas, and the Ebers Papyrus:
* Pole, Sebastian. //Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice//. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone (2006).
* Nunn, John F. //Ancient Egyptian Medicine//. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press (2002; 1996).

Information on the confirmation of leprosy as a disease of ancient times:
* Robbins, Gwen et al. “Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.).” //PLoS One//. 4.5 (2009).
[[Back to Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and Sources

Bristlecone pines, age:
* Ferguson, C.W. “A 7,104-year annual tree-ring chronology for bristlecone pine, //Pinus aristata//, from the White Mountains, California.” //Tree-Ring Bulletin//. 29.3-4 (1969): 3-29.
* Chang, Mingteh. //Forest Hydrology: An Introduction to Water and Forests//. Boca Raton, Fl.: CRC Press (2003).

Information on leaf senescence and leaf biochemistry:
* Herrick, Jeffrey D. and Richard B. Thomas. “Leaf senescence and late-season net photosynthesis of sun and shade leaves of overstory sweetgum (//Liquidambar styraciflua//) grown in elevated and ambient carbon dioxide concentrations.” //Tree Physiology//. 23 (2003): 109-118.

Information on tannins and carotenoids in beeches and oaks:
* Rhoads, Julie L. “[[Autumn Colors|http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?p=G5010]].” //University of Missouri Extension//. June 1998.
* Dawson, Jeffrey O. “[[Why Tree Leaves Turn Color in Autumn|http://web.extension.illinois.edu/forestry/fall_colors.html]].” //University of Illinois Extension//.
* Bussotti, F. et al. “Occurrence of Tannins in Leaves of Beech Trees (//Fagus sylvatica//) along an Ecological Gradient, Detected by Histochemical and Ultrastructural Analyses.” //New Phytologist//. 138.3 (1998): 469-479.

Empedocles, Aristotle, and the question of whether or not plants have souls:
* Bremmer, Jan N. //The Early Greek Concept of Soul//. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (1983).
* Cohen, S. Mar, Curd, Patricia, and C.D.C. Reeve (eds.). //Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy: From Thales to Aristotle//. 3rd ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. (2005).

Evolution of aquatic plants:
* Martone, Patrick T. et al. “Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture.” //Current Biology//. 19.2 (2009): 169-175.
* Raven, John A. “The early evolution of land plants: Aquatic ancestors and atmospheric interactions.” //Botanical Journal of Scotland//. 47.2 (1995): 151-175.
* Bateman, Richard M. et al. “Early Evolution of Land Plants: Phylogeny, Physiology, and Ecology of the Primary Terrestrial Radiation.” //Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics//. 29 (1998): 263-292.

Information on features and species of aquatic plants:
* Botany Textbooks. “[[Aquatic Plants|http://www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/lifeforms/aquaticplants/fulltextonly.html]].” UCLA.
* “[[Photosynthesis and Oxygen Production|http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/guide/photosynthesis.html]].” //Plant Management in Florida Waters//.

//Isoëtes eludens// discovered in South Africa, described in 2007:
* “//[[Isoetes eludens|http://www.kew.org/plants-fungi/Isoetes-eludens.htm]]//.” Kew.

Theory of endosymbiosis, mitochondria and chloroplasts:
* Dyall, Sabrina D., Brown, Mark T. and Patricia J. Johnson. “Ancient Invasions: From Endosymbionts to Organelles.” //Science//. 304.5668 (2004): 253-257.
* De Duve, Christian. “The origin of eukaryotes: a reappraisal.” //Nature Reviews Genetics//. 8 (May 2007): 395-403.

Human uses of traditional plant medicines:
* Swerdlow, Joel L. //Nature's Medicine: Plants that Heal//. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society (2000).

Information on plants and alleopathy:
* Willis, Rick J. //The History of Allelopathy//. Dordrecht; London: Springer (2007).

Information on chimpanzees in Kibale National Park:
* Krief, Sabrina, Hladik, Claude Marcel, and Claudie Haxaire. “Ethnomedicinal and bioactive properties of plants ingested by wild chimpanzees in Uganda.” //Journal of Ethnopharmacology//. 101 (2005): 1-15.

Information on gardens, vegetables, and public markets in the late Middle Ages:
* Dyer, Christopher. //Standards of living in the later Middle Ages: Social Change in England, c. 1200-1520//. Cambridge [Eng.]; New York: Cambridge University Press (1989).
[[Back to Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Biophilia, sociobiology, and details about E.O. Wilson:
* Wilson, E.O. //Biophilia//. Harvard University Press (1984).
* Wilson, E.O. and Stephen R. Kellert (eds.). //The Biophilia Hypothesis//. Island Press (1993).
* Kellert, Stephen R., Heerwagen, Judith H. and Martin L. Mador (eds.). //Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life//. Wiley (2008).
* Yudell, Michael and Rob DeSalle. “Essay Review: Sociobiology: Twenty-Five Years Later.” //Journal of the History of Biology//. 33.3 (2000): 577-584.

Pollination in gymnosperms:
* Ren, Dong et al. “A Probable Pollination Mode Before Angiosperms: Eurasian, Long-Proboscid Scorpionflies.” //Science//. 326.5954 (2009): 840-847.
* Bell, Charles D., Soltis, Douglas E. and Pamela S. Soltis. “The age of the angiosperms: a molecular timescale without a clock.” //Society for the Study of Evolution//. 59.6 (2005): 1245-58.

Information on orchid pollination involving food deception and sexual deception:
* Ledford, Heidi. “Plant biology: The flower of seduction.” //Nature//. 445 (22 Feb. 2007): 816-817.
* Schiestl, Florian P. et al. “The Chemistry of Sexual Deception in an Orchid-Wasp Pollination System.” //Science//. 302.5664 (17 Oct. 2003): 437-438.

Megafauna and overbuilt fruit:
* Guimarães Jr., Paulo R., Galetti, Mauro and Pedro Jordano. “Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate.” //PloS One//. Online. 5 March 2008.

Details about the relationship between acacia trees and stinging ants:
* Beattie, Andrew James. //The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant-Plant Mutualisms//. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1985).

Information on 11,400-year-old figs:
* Kislev, Mordecai E. et al. “Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley.” //Science//. 312.5778 (2006): 1372-1374.

Information on Queen Hatshepsut and early plant hunting expeditions:
* Janick, Jules. “Plant Exploration: From Queen Hatshepsut to Sir Joseph Banks.” //HortScience//. 42.2 (2007): 191-196.
* Ward, Bobby J. //The Plant Hunter's Garden: the New Explorers and Their Discoveries//. Portland: Timber Press (2004).
* Gunn, Mary and L.E. Codd. //Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa: An Illustrated History of Early Botanical Literature on the Cape Flora: Biographical Accounts of the Leading Plant Collectors and Their Activities in Southern Africa from the Days of the East India Company Until Modern Times//. Cape Town: Published for the Botanical Research Institute by A.A. Balkema (1981).

Additional information on famous plant-hunting expeditions:
* Musgrave, Toby, Gardner, Chris and Will Musgrave. //The Plant Hunters: Two Hundred Years of Adventure and Discovery Around the World//. Ward Lock (1998).

Plant extinction in the late 19th and 20th centuries:
* Hahs, Amy K. et al. “A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas.” //Ecology Letters//. 12.11 (31 Aug. 2009): 1165-1173.
* Groombridge, Brian and Martin D. Jenkins. //World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century//. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press (2002).

Information on wild cucumbers and prehistoric Native Americans:
* Martin, Steve L. “The Use of Marah Macrocarpus by the Prehistoric Indians of Coastal Southern California.” //Journal of Ethnobiology//. 29.1 (2009): 77-93.

Plant and pollen analysis of human coprolites from Hinds Cave, Texas:
* Reinhard, Karl J. et al. “Evaluating chloroplast DNA in prehistoric Texas coprolites: medicinal, dietary, or ambient ancient DNA?” //Journal of Archaeological Science//. 35.6 (2008): 1748-1755.

Reference to 8,000 species of plants in India that possess healing qualities:
* Bhattacharyya, Rajasri,  Bhattacharyya, Sabita and Siddhartha Chaudhuri. “Conservation and documentation of the medicinal plant resources of India.” //Biodiversity and Conservation//. 15.8 (2006): 2705-2717.

The percentages of people who use traditional medicines globally:
* “[[Traditional Medicine|http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/traditional/en/index.html]].” World Health Organization. (2010).

[[Back to Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Details on the Amazon basin and remnants of human civilizations:
*Heckenberger, Michael J. “Lost Garden Cities: Pre-Columbian Life in the Amazon.” //Scientific American//. October 2009.  

Information on Egyptian gardens:
*Hobhouse, Penelope. //Plants in Garden History//. London: Pavilion Books (1992).
*Wilkinsin, Alix. //The Garden in Ancient Egypt//. London: Rubicon Press (1998).

Information on incense trees and Queen Hatshepsut:
*Marshall, Sarah. “Frankincense: A Festive Pharmacognosy.” //The Pharmaceutical Journal//. 271 (2003): 862-846.

Information on the introduction of various plants into Egypt and Mesopotamia:
*Manniche, Lise. //An Ancient Egyptian Herbal//. London: British Museum (2006).
*Borchardt, John K. “The Beginnings of Drug Therapy: Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine.” //Drug News & Perspectives//. 15.3 (2002): 187.

Information on the garden designed in honor of Aton:
*Wilkinsin, Alix. “Symbolism and Design in Ancient Egyptian Gardens.” //Garden History//. 22.1 (1994): 1-17.

Information on water passageways introduced by Sumerians:
*Postel, Sandra. //Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last?// New York: W.W. Norton & Co. (1999).
*Hobhouse, Penelope. //Plants in Garden History//. London: Pavilion Books (1992).

Information on the Babylonians and on the Hanging Gardens of Babylon:
*Dalley, Stephanie. “Ancient Mesopotamian Gardens and the Identification of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Resolved.” //Garden History//. 21.1 (1993): 1-13.
*Reade, Julian. “Alexander the Great and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.” //Iraq//. 60 (2000): 195-217.

Information on Byzantian and ancient Greek gardens:
*Littlewood, Anthony, Maguire, Henry, and Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn. //Byzantine Garden Culture//. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection (2002).
*Raven, John E. et al. //Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece//. Oxford: Leopard's Head (2000).

Information on various elements of ancient gardens, real and mythical:
*Cowell, F.R. “Gardens as an Art Form.” //The British Journal of Aesthetics//. 6.2 (1966): 111-122.

Insight on Homer's garden of Alcinous in Odyssey aided by:
*Allison, W.T. Rev. “The Nature-Poetry of the Psalms.” //The Biblical World//. 29.3 (1907): 208-216.

Information on the Pompeii, Herculaneum, and other gardens of the Roman era:
*Jashemski, Wilhelmina F. //The gardens of Pompeii: Herculaneum and the villas Destroyed by Vesuvius//. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Caratzas Bros (1979).
*Farrar, Linda. //Ancient Roman Gardens//. Stroud: Sutton Pub (1998).

Information about vegetables and monastery gardens in the Middle Ages:
*Harvey, John H. “Vegetables in the Middle Ages.” //Garden History//. 12.2 (1984): 89-99.

Concerning the transition from medieval gardening to Renaissance gardening, as well as other general information about Renaissance gardens in Italy, France, and England:
*Woods, May. //Visions of Arcadia: European Gardens from Renaissance to Rococo//. London: Aurum (1996).

Information about natural gardens and the design of gardens to fit into natural landscapes:
*Berry, Susan, Bradley, Steve, and Channel Four (Great Britain). //Plant Life: A Gardener's Guide//. London: Collins & Brown in association with Channel Four Television (1993).
*Tallamy, Douglas W. //Bringing Nature Home: How You Can Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants//. Portland: Timber Press (2009).

Information about Yosemite and Frederick Law Olmsted:
*Stevenson, Elizabeth. //Park Maker: A Life of Frederick Law Olmsted//. New York: Macmillan (1977).

Other details about the history of Yosemite National Park:
*Greene, Linda Wedel. //Yosemite, The Park and Its Resources: A History of the Discovery, Management, and Physical Development of Yosemite National Park, California: Historic Resource Study//. 3 vol. [Denver, Colo.?]: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service (1987).

The history of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Olympic National Parks:
*Duncan, Dayton and Ken Burns. //The National Parks: America's Best Idea: An Illustrated History//. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (2009).
*Web resources at [[nps.gov|http://www.nps.gov/index.htm]], provided by the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Information on the plants of Olympic National Park and the Olympic Peninsula:
*Wuerthner, George and Douglas W. Moore. //Olympic: A Visitor's Companion//. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books (1999).
*Kavanagh, James and Raymond Leung. //Washington State Trees & Wildflowers: An Introduction to Familiar Species//. [Phoenix, Ariz.]: Waterford Press (2000).

Details about the Olympic marmot and the Vancouver Island marmot:
*Griffin, Suzanne G. et al. “Effects of Tourists on Behavior and Demography of Olympic Marmots.” //Biological Conservation//. 141.5 (2008): 1293-1309.
*Griffin, Suzanne G. et al. “Marmots on the Move? Dispersal in a Declining Montane Mammal.” //Journal of Mammalogy//. 90.3 (2009): 686-695.
*Hebda, Richard J., McDadi, Omar, and David Mazzucchi. “Habitat History and the Decline of the Vancouver Island Marmot (//Marmota vancouverensis//).” //Proceedings of the Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference//. March 2-6, 2004. Victoria, B.C.

[[Back to Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Information on the platypus:
*Phillips, M.J., Bennett, T.H. and M.S. Lee. “Molecules, morphology, and ecology indicate a recent, amphibious ancestry for echidnas.” //PNAS//. 106 (2009): 17089–17094.

The emergence of vascular plants 410 million years ago:
*Gensel, Patricia G. and Dianne Edwards. //Plants Invade the Land: Evolutionary and Environmental Perspectives//. New York: Columbia University Press (2001).

Information on the sixth mass extinction:
*Wake, David B. and Vance T. Vrendenberg. “Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians.” //PNAS//. 105.supplement 1 (2008): 11466-11473.
*Jackson, Jeremy B.C. “Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean.” //PNAS//. 105.supplement 1 (2008): 11458-11465.
*Thomas, Chris D. et al. “Extinction Risk from Climate Change.” //Nature//. 427 (2004): 145-148.

Information on the five mass extinctions known from the fossil record:
*Wyatt, A.R. “Late Ordovician extinctions and sea-level change.” //Journal of the Geological Society, London//. 152 (1995): 899-902.
*Sheehan, Peter M. “The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction.” //Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences//. 29.1 (2001): 331-364.
*Benton, Michael J. and Richard J. Twitchett. “How to kill (almost) all life: the end-Permian extinction event.” //TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution//. 18.7 (2003): 358-365.

Concerning the extinction of large mammals, including the woolly mammoth:
*Chivian, Eric and Aaron Bernstein (eds.). //Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity//. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press (2008).
*Nogués-Bravo, David et al. “Climate Change, Humans, and the Extinction of the Woolly Mammoth.” //PLoS One//. 6.4 (2008): e79.
*Nyström, Veronica et al. “Temporal genetic change in the last remaining population of woolly mammoth.” //Proceedings of the Royal Society//. 277.1692 (7 Aug. 2010): 2331-2337.

IUCN data citing 875 extinctions between the 1500s and 2009, about 114 species of which were plants, extinct or extinct in the wild:
*“[[Extinction crisis continues apace|http://www.iucn.org/media/materials/releases/?4143/Extinction-crisis-continues-apace]].” //IUCN//. 3 Nov. 2009.

Information on extinct birds:
*BirdLife International. //Threatened Birds of the World 2004//. Cambridge: BirdLife International (2004).

Information on St. Helena olive and other plant species endemic to St. Helena island:
*Cronk, Q.C.B. “The past and present vegetation of St. Helena.” //Journal of Biogeography//. 16.1 (1989): 47-64.
*Cairns-Wicks, R. //Nesiota elliptica//. (2004) In: //IUCN 2009. 2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species//.
*Cronk, Q.C.B. “The decline of the St Helena gumwood //Commidendrum robustum//.” //Biological Conservation//. 35.2 (1986): 173-186.
*Cairns-Wicks, R. //Commidendrum spurium//. (2003) In: //IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species//.
*Hancock, Simon. “[[Fight to save dying plant species|http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8469004.stm]].” //BBC News//. 19 January 2010.

Details on self-incompatibility in //Commidendrum// and other flowering plants:
*Silva, N.F. and D.R. Goring. “Mechanisms of self-incompatibility in flowering plants.” //Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences//. 58.14 (2001): 1988-2007.
*Hancock, Simon. “Fight to save dying plant species.” //BBC News//. 19 Jan. 2010.

Information about half the world's population inhabiting urban areas:
*United Nations Population Fund. //UNFPA State of World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth//. New York: United Nations Population Fund (2007).

Explanation of socioeconomic factors associated with increased susceptibility to extinction of birds and mammals:
*Kerr, Jeremy T. and David J. Currie. “Effects of Human Activity on Global Extinction Risk.” //Conservation Biology//. 9.6 (1995): 1528-1538.

Information on ecosystem services and the impacts of humans on extinction rates:
*Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. //Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis Report//. Washington D.C.: Island Press (2005).

Information on biodiversity and the effects of human activities and human population on the variety of life on Earth:
*U.N. Environment Programme, Global Environmental Outlook 4. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Program (2007); McKee, Jeffrey K. “Forecasting global biodiversity threats associated with human population growth.” //Biological Conservation//. 115 (2003): 161-164.
*Gaston, Kevin J. “Biodiversity and extinction: species and people.” //Progress in Physical Geography//. 29.2 (2005): 239-247.

Information on IUCN criteria for evaluating species under threat of extinction:
*Mace, Georgina M. et al. “Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN's system for classifying threatened species.” //Conservation Biology//. 22.6 (2008): 1424-1442. 

The number of described species, just short of 2 million:
*Groombridge, Brian, Jenkins, Martin, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and United Nations Environment Programme. //World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century//. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press (2002).
*Chapman, Arthur D. (Australian Biodiversity Information Services). //Number of Living Species in Australia and the World//. 2nd ed. Parkes, ACT: Australian Govt., Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Arts (2009).

Information on endemism, biodiversity, and extinction:
*Pimm, Stuart L. and Peter Raven. “Biodiversity: Extinction by Numbers.” //Nature//. 403.6772 (2000): 843-845.

Endemic species detection in habitats:
*Ovadia, Ofer. “Ranking hotspots of varying sizes: a lesson from the nonlinearity of the species-area relationship.” //Conservation Biology//. 17.5 (2003): 1440-1441.

Information on background extinction rates and extinction rates due to anthropogenic factors:
*Pimm, Stuart L. et al. “The Future of Biodiversity.” //Science//. 269.5222 (1995): 347-350.
*Pimm, Stuart L. and Peter Raven. “Biodiversity: Extinction by Numbers.” //Nature//. 403.6772 (2000): 843-845.

Information on the known number of plant species:
*Bramwell, D. “How many plant species are there?” //Plant Talk//. 28 (2002): 32–34.
*Purves, William K. //Life: The Science of Biology//. New York: W.H. Freeman; Basingstoke: Palgrave (2004).
*Chapman, Arthur D. (Australian Biodiversity Information Services). //Number of Living Species in Australia and the World//. 2nd ed. Parkes, ACT: Australian Govt., Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Arts (2009).

Plants at risk of extinction in tropical regions:
*Pitman, Nigel C.A. et al. “Extinction-Rate Estimates for a Modern Neotropical Flora.” //Conservation Biology//. 16.5 (2002): 1427-1431.

Information on the 3 percent of vascular plants (or about 8,450 species) at risk of extinction globally; information on the 17,300 total number of species at risk globally; and information on the estimated number of species on Earth, between 5 million and tens of millions:
*Chapman, Arthur D. (Australian Biodiversity Information Services). //Number of Living Species in Australia and the World//. 2nd ed. Parkes, ACT: Australian Govt., Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage, and the Arts (2009).

Information on 130,000 square kilometers of forested land lost to deforestation each year:
*Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. //Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management//. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2006).

Concerning the affects to local climate of deforestation in Amazonia:
*Shukla, J., Nobre, C. and P. Sellers. “Amazon Deforestation and Climate Change.” //Nature//. 247.4948 (1990): 1322-1325.
*Cochrane, Mark A. and Christopher P. Barber. “Climate change, human land use and future fires in the Amazon.” //Global Change Biology//. 15.3 (2009): 601-612.

Information on the role of migratory birds in keeping insect populations in check:
*Holling, C.S. “Temperate Forest Insect Outbreaks, Tropical Deforestation and Migratory Birds.” //Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada//. 146 (1988): 21-32.

Details on deforestation in the 1990s in the tropics being responsible for an estimated 10 to 25 percent of carbon emissions worldwide:
*Houghton, R.A. “Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management 1850-2000.” //Tellus//. 55 (2003): 378-390.
*Achard, Frédéric et al. “Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World's Humid Tropical Forests.” //Science//. 297.5583 (2002): 999-1002.
*Santilli, Márcio et al. “Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol.” //Climatic Change//. 71.3 (2005): 267-276.

Information on the Mesoamerican hotspot:
*Harvey, Celia A. “Integrating agricultural landscapes with biodiversity conservation in the Mesoamerican hotspot.” //Conservation Biology//. 22.1 (2007): 8-15.
*Myers, N. et al. “Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.” //Nature//. 403 (2000): 853-858.
*Sarkar, Sahotra et al. “Systematic conservation assessment for the Mesoamerica, Chocó, and Tropical Andes biodiversity hotspots: a preliminary analysis.” //Biodivers Conserv//. 18 (2009): 1793-1828.

Descriptions of root-spine palm and other Cryosophila:
*The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. “//[[Cryosophila williamsii|http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/30366/0]]//.” //IUCN Red List//.
*Henderson, Andrew, Galeano, Gloria and Rodrigo Bernal. //Field Guide to the Palms of the Americas//. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (1995).
*“//[[Cryosophila cookii|http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/38495/0]]//.” IUCN Red List.
*Evans, Randall J.. “Systematics of Cryosophila (Palmae).” //Systematic Botany Monographs//. 46 (1995): 1-70.

Information on the loss of forest cover in the 1990s in Central America, Amazon River Basin, and Southeast Asia:
*Achard, Frédéric et al. “Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests.” //Science//. 297.5583 (2002): 999-1002.

Forest cover lost per year in South America and Africa:
*Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. //Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress Towards Sustainable Forest Management//. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2006).

The Clemens tree farm, Weyerhaeuser Company, and tree farms in general:
*Dolan, Edward F. //The American Wilderness and its Future: Conservation Versus Use//. New York: F. Watts (1992).

Information about tree growth in monocultures and in mixed stands:
*Piotto, Daniel. “A meta-analysis comparing tree growth in monocultures and mixed plantations.” //Forest Ecology and Management//. 255.3-4 (2008): 781-786.

Background information on biodiversity hotspots:
*Myers, Norman. “The biodiversity challenge: expanded hot-spots analysis.” //The Environmentalist//. 10.4 (1990): 243-256; and Reid, Walter V. “Biodiversity Hotspots.” TREE. 13.7 (1998): 275-280.

Information on the land area and percent of endemic plant and vertebrate species within the 25 original biodiversity hotspots:
*Myers, N. et al. “Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.” //Nature//. 403 (2000): 853-858.

Information on world human population and population growth by 2050:
*United Nations, Population Division. //World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database//. [New York, N.Y.]: United Nations (2009).
*United Nations Population Fund. //UNFPA State of World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth//. New York: United Nations Population Fund (2007).

The 11 percent of land currently devoted to agricultural use:
*Bridges, E.M. and J.H.V. Van Baren. “Soil: an overlooked, undervalued and vital part of the human environment.” //The Environmentalist//. 17 (1997): 15-20.

Information on calorie intake in the United States and in Burundi in 2005:
*Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. //[[FAOSTAT Database|http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx]]//. [Rome?]: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1998- ).

Information about 800 million people living off the grain fed to U.S. livestock:
*Pimentel, David and Marcia Pimental. “Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.” //American Journal of Clinical Nutrition//. 78.3 (2003): 660S-663S.
*“[[U.S. could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat, Cornell ecologist advises animal scientists|http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Aug97/livestock.hrs.html]].” Cornell University Science News. 7 Aug. 1997.

Greenhouse gases emitted from livestock being greater than those emitted from automobiles:
*LEAD: The Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative. //Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options//. Rome: FAO (2006).

Information on population density in Japan:
*United Nations, Population Division. //[[World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database|http://esa.un.org/unpp/]]//. [New York, N.Y.]: United Nations (2009).
*Statistical Research and Training Institute, MIC (ed.). //The Statistical Handbook of Japan 2009//. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
*“[[Biodiversity Hotspots: Japan|http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/japan/Pages/default.aspx]].” //Conservation International//.

About 45 percent of Japan's population is found within a 50-kilometer radius of Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka; these three cities make up about 6 percent of Japan's land area:
*Statistical Research and Training Institute, MIC (ed.). //The Statistical Handbook of Japan 2009//. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.

Total area of about 600,000 square kilometers of Himalayas mountain system:
*Zurick, David and Julsun Pacheco. //Illustrated Atlas of the Himalaya//. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky (2006).

Information on population density of Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal Hills:
*India Registrar General & Census Commissioner. //Census of India 2001//. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner (2001).

Disappearance of approximately 75 percent of native plant life:
*“[[Biodiversity Hotspots: Himalaya|http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/himalaya/Pages/default.aspx]].” //Conservation International//.

Information on the harvesting of medicinal plants in the Himalayas:
*Larsen H, O., Olsen C S. and T.E. Boon. “The non-timber forest policy process in Nepal: actors, objectives and power.” //Forestry Nepal//. 1.3/4 (2004): 267-281.
*Hamilton, Alan and Elizabeth Radford. //Identification and Conservation of Important Plant Areas for the Medicinal Plants in the Himalayas//. Plantlife International and the Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal (2007).
*Ghimire, Suresh Kumar, McKey, Doyle and Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas. “Conservation of Himalayan medicinal plants: Harvesting patterns and ecology of two threatened species, //Nardostachys grandiflora// DC. and //Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora// (Pennell) Hong.” //Biological Conservation//. 124 (2005): 463-475.
*Bisht, Anil Kumar and Arvind Bhatt. “Prioritization and Conservation of Himalayan Medicinal Plants: //Angelica glauca// Edgew. as a case study.” //Ethnobotany Research & Applications//. 4 (2006): 011-023.

Human population densities within biodiversity hotspots, including Indo-Burma, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, Southwest Australia, and Succulent Karoo, as of 2000:
*Cincotta, Richard P., Wisnewski, Jennifer and Robert Engelman. “Human population in the biodiversity hotspots.” //Nature//. 404 (27 April 2000): 990-992. 

Information on the areas of and species found in the Indo-Burma and Western Ghats and Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspots:
*Shi, Hua et al. “Integrating habitat status, human population pressure, and protection status into biodiversity conservation priority setting.” //Conservation Biology//. 19.4 (2005): 1273-1285.
*Myers, N. et al. “Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.” //Nature//. 403 (2000): 853-858.

The endemism and geography of the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka:
*Bossuyt, Franky et al. “Local Endemism Within the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Biodiversity Hotspot.” //Science//. 306.5695 (2004): 479-481. 

Information on total number of plant species (45,000) and on number of medicinal plants (8,000) in India:
*Grover, J.K., Yadav, S. and V. Vats. “Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.” //Journal of Ethnopharmacology//. 81.1 (2002): 81-100.
*Bhattacharyya, Rajasri,  Bhattacharyya, Sabita and Siddhartha Chaudhuri. “Conservation and documentation of the medicinal plant resources of India.” //Biodiversity and Conservation//. 15.8 (2006): 2705-2717.

Information on the geography and climate of the Plateau of Tibet:
*Wang, Bin et al. “Tibetan Plateau warming and precipitation changes in East Asia.” //Geophysical Research Letters//. 35.L14702 (2008).

Descriptions of the plant genera found on the Plateau of Tibet:
*Zhang, Da-Chi et al. “Elevational patterns of species richness and endemism for some important taxa in the Hengduan Mountains, southwestern China.” //Biodivers Conserv//. 18.3 (2009): 699-716.

Information on the geography, climate, and plants of the Gobi desert:
*Lemons, John, Victor, Reginald and Daniel Schaffer. //Conserving Biodiversity in Arid Regions: Best Practices in Developing Nations//. Boston, Mass.; London: Kluwer Academic (2003).

Information on the Loess Plateau:
*Jiang, Yuan et al. “Impact of land use on plant biodiversity and measures for biodiversity conservation in the Loess Plateau in China—a case study in a hilly-gully region of the Northern Loess Plateau.” //Biodiversity and Conservation//. 12.10 (2003): 2121-2133.

Details on the Mountains of Southwest China and South-Central China hotspot:
*Myers, N. et al. “Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.” //Nature//. 403 (2000): 853-858.
*Xu, Jianchu and Andreas Wilkes. “Biodiversity impact analysis in northwest Yunnan, southwest China.” //Biodiversity and Conservation//. 13.5 (2004): 959-983.

Information on //Dendrobium officinale//:
*Gu, S. et al. “Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in //Dendrobium officinale//, an endangered herb endemic to China.” //Molecular Ecology Notes//. 7.6 (15 May 2007): 1166-1168.
*Ding, G. et al. “Genetic Diversity Across Natural Populations of //Dendrobium officinale//, the Endangered Medicinal Herb Endemic to China, Revealed by ISSR and RAPD Markers.” //Russian Journal of Genetics//. 45.3 (2009): 327-334.

Information on //Ginkgo biloba//:
*Royer, Dana L., Hickey, Leo J. and Scott L. Wing. “Ecological conservatism in the “living fossil” Ginkgo.” //Paleobiology//. 29.1 (2003): 84-104.
*Zhou, Zhiyan and Shaolin Zheng. “Palaeobiology: The missing link in Ginkgo evolution—the modern maidenhair tree has barely changed since the days of the dinosaurs.” //Nature//. 423.6942 (2003): 3.
*Jacobs, Bradly P. and Warren S. Browner. “//Ginkgo biloba//: a living fossil.” //The American Journal of Medicine//. 108.4 (2000): 341-342.
*DeKosky, Steven T. et al. “//Ginkgo biloba// for Prevention of Dementia: a randomized controlled trial.” //Journal of the American Medical Association//. 300.19 (2008): 2253-2262.
*Leistner, Eckhard and Christel Drewke. “//Ginkgo biloba// and ginkgotoxin.” //Journal of Natural Products//. 73.1 (2010): 86-92; 

Information on //Panax ginseng// and //P. quinquefolis//:
*Walter H. Lewis and Memory P.F. Elvin-Lewis. //Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health//. 2nd ed, Wiley (2003).
*Sumner, Judith. //The Natural History of Medicinal Plants//. Portland, Or.: Timber Press (2000).

Information on the Southwest Australia Ecoregion:
*Gole, Cheryl. //The Southwest Australia Ecoregion: Jewel of the Australian Continent//. Wembley, W.A.: Southwest Australia Ecoregion Initiative (2006).

The role of fire in maintaining the ecology of Southwest Australia:
*Burrows, N.D. “Linking fire ecology and fire management in south-west Australian forest landscapes.” //Forest Ecology and Management//. 255 (2008): 2394-2406.

Information on the Succulent Karoo ecosystem and conservation efforts:
*Driver, Amanda et al. “Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Plan Biodiversity Component Technical Report.” //Cape Town, Cape Conservation Unit, Botanical Society of South Africa// (2003).
*Hannah, L. et al. “Conservation of Biodiversity in a Changing Climate.” //Conservation Biology//. 16.1 (2002): 264-268.
*Desmet, P.G. et al. “Integrating Biosystematic Data into Conservation Planning: Perspectives from Southern Africa’s Succulent Karoo.” //Systematic Biology//. 51.2 (2002): 317-330.

Details about the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot and information on Mediterranean plants:
*Kark, Salit et al. “Between-country collaboration and consideration of costs increase conservation planning efficiency in the Mediterranean Basin.” //PNAS//. 106.36 (2009): 15368-15373.
*de Montmollin, Bertrand, Strahm, Wendy, and IUCN/SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. //The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild Plants at the Brink of Extinction, and What is Needed to Save Them//. Cambridge: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (2005).
*Kloosterman, Karin. “[[Saving billions to save the environment|http://www.israel21c.org/201003297809/people/saving-billions-to-save-the-environment]].” //Israel21c Innovation News Service//. 29 March 2010.
*“[[About the Biome: Mediterranean Basin|http://www.mediterraneanaction.net/ma_v2/about_biome/med_basin.jsp]].” //Global Mediterranean Action Network//.  

Information on North American prairie biome:
*Robison, Roy, White, Donald B. and Mary Hockenberry Meyer. Minnesota Extension Service. //Plants in Prairie Communities//. [St. Paul, Minn.]: Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota (1995).

Information on half of global population living near a coastline:
*Small, C. and R.J. Nicholls. “A global analysis of human settlement along coastal zones.” //Journal of Coastal Research//. 19.3 (2003): 584-599.

Information on coral reefs: Birkeland, Charles. //Life and Death of Coral Reefs//. New York; London: Chapman & Hall (1997).

Back to [[Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

The percentages of people who use traditional medicines globally:
*“[[Traditional Medicine|http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/traditional/en/index.html]].” //World Health Organization//. (2010).
*Parry-Jones, Rob and Amanda Vincent. “Can We Tame Wild Medicine?” NewScientist. 2115 (1998). 

Information on the U.S. expenditures on complementary and alternative medicine and on the most frequently used natural products in the United States:
*Barnes, Patricia M. et al. “Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United Stateps, 2002.” //Seminars in Integrative Medicine//. 2.2 (2004): 54-71.
*Barnes, Patricia M., Bloom, Barbara and Richard L. Nahin. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Adults and Children: United States, 2007.” //National Health Statistics Report//. Number 12 (2008).
*Nahin, Richard L. et al. “Costs of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Frequency of Visits to CAM Practitioners: United States, 2007.” //National Health Statistics Report//. Number 18 (2009).

Information on artemisinin:
*Enserink, Martin. “Infectious Diseases: Source of New Hope Against Malaria is in Short Supply.” //Science//. 307.5706 (2005): 33.
*Ro, Dae-Kyun et al. “Production of the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid in engineered yeast.” //Nature//. 440.7086 (2006): 940-943.
*Ro, Dae-Kyun et al. “Induction of multiple pleiotropic drug resistance genes in yeast engineered to produce an increased level of anti-malarial drug precursor, artemisinic acid.” //BMC Biotechnology//. 8.83 (2008).

Information on quinine:
*Burns, William R. “East meets West: how China almost cured malaria.” //Endeavour//. 32.3 (2008): 101-106.
*Yeka, Adoke et al. “Quinine monotherapy for treating uncomplicated malaria in the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy: an appropriate public health policy?” //The Lancet Infectious Diseases//. 9.7 (2009): 448-452.
*Willcox, Merlin, Bodeker, Gerard, and Philippe Rasoanaivo (eds.). //Traditional Medicinal Plants for Malaria//. Boca Raton: CRC Press (2004).

Concerning jaborandi and pilocarpine:
*Avancini, Graziela et al. “Induction of pilocarpine formation in jaborandi leaves by salicylic acid and methyljasmonate.” //Phytochemistry//. 63.2 (2003): 171-175.
*Vieira, Roberto F. “Conservation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Brazil.” //New Crops and New Uses//. (1999).
*Foster, Steven and Rebecca L. Johnson. //National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine//. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic (2008).

Information on the vinca alkaloids:
*Chabner, Bruce A., Lynch, Thomas J. and Dan L. Longo (eds.). //Harrison's Manual of Oncology//. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical (2008).
*Kruczynski, Anna and Bridget T. Hill. “Vinflunine, the latest Vinca alkaloid in clinical development: A review of its preclinical anticancer properties.” //Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology//. 40.2 (2001): 159-173.
*Foster, Steven and Rebecca L. Johnson. //National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine//. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic (2008).

Details on aspirin:
*Raskin, I. “Role of Salicylic Acid in Plants.” //Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology//. 43 (1992): 439-463.
*Vane, John R., Flower, Roderick J., and Regina M. Botting. “History of Aspirin and Its Mechanism of Action.” //Stroke//. 21.12 (1990): IV 12-23.
*Couplan, François. //The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America//. New Canaan, Conn.: Keats Pub. (1998).
*Sumner, Judith. //The Natural History of Medicinal Plants//. Portland, Or.: Timber Press (2000).
*Agrawal, A. and I. S. Fentiman. “NSAIDs and breast cancer: a possible prevention and treatment strategy.” //International Journal of Clinical Practice//. 62.3 (2008): 444-449.

Information on morphine and opium poppy:
*Booth, Martin. //Opium: A History//. New York: St. Martin's Press (1998).
*Huxtable, Ryan J. and Stephan K.W. Schwarz. “The Isolation of Morphine—First Principles in Science and Ethics.” //Molecular Interventions//. 1.4 (2001): 189-191.
*Rang, H.P. et al. //Pharmacology//. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone (2001).
*Li, Choh Hao and David Chung. “Isolation and structure of an untriakontapeptide with opiate activity from camel pituitary glands.” //PNAS//. 73.4 (1976): 1145-1148.
*Morimoto, Satoshi et al. “Morphine Metabolism in the Opium Poppy and Its Possible Physiological Function: Biochemical Characterization of the Morphine Metabolite, Bismorphine.” //Journal of Biological Chemistry//. 276.41 (2001): 38179-38184.
*Samanani, Nailish et al. “The role of phloem sieve elements and laticifers in the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids in opium poppy.” //The Plant Journal//. 47.4 (2006): 547-563.

Details on //Ephedra// and ephedrine:
*Walter H. Lewis and Memory P.F. Elvin-Lewis. //Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health//. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley (2003).
*Rang, H.P. et al. //Pharmacology//. 4th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone (2001).

Information on natural compounds from plants under investigation in clinical trials, including flavopiridol:
*Axt, Josephine R. et al. “Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights.” //Congressional Research Service Report for Congress//. 16 April 1993.
*Nobili, Stefania et al. “Natural compounds for cancer treatment and prevention.” //Pharmacological Research//. 59.6 (2009): 365-378.
*Carlson, B.A. et al. “Flavopiridol induces G1 arrest with inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and CDK4 in human breast carcinoma cells.” //Cancer Research//. 56.13 (1996): 2973-2978.
*Mohanakumara, Patel et al. “//Dysoxylum binectariferum// Hook.f (Meliaceae), a rich source of rohitukine.” //Fitoterapia//. 81.2 (2010): 145-148.

Description of the genus //Phyllanthus// and compounds isolated from extracts of these plants:
*Cos, Paul et al. “Plant-Derived Leading Compounds for Chemotherapy of Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) Infection—An Update (1998–2007).” //Planta Med//. 74.11 (2008): 1323-1337.
*Walter H. Lewis and Memory P.F. Elvin-Lewis. //Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health//. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley (2003).
*Calixto, João B. et al. “A Review of the Plants of the Genus //Phyllanthus//: Their Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential.” //Med. Res. Rev//. 18.4 (1998): 225-258.
*Liu, J., Lin, H. and H. McIntosh. “Genus //Phyllanthus// for chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review.” //Journal of Viral Hepatitis//. 8 (2001): 358-366.
*Hupfeld, Julia and Thomas Efferth. “Drug Resistance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Overcoming it by Natural Products.” //In Vivo//. 23.1 (2009): 1-6.

Information on //Gymnema sylvestra// and //Commiphora mukul//:
*Kanetkar, Parijat, Singhal, Rekha and Madhusudan Kamat. “//Gymnema sylvestre//: A Memoir.” //J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr.// 41.2 (2007): 77–81.
*Madhurima, S.H. Ansari et al. “Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Analysis of //Gymnema sylvestre// R. (Br.) Leaves.” //Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology//. 3.1 (2009): 73-80.
*Urizar, Nancy L. and David D. Moore. “Gugulipid: A Natural Cholesterol-Lowering Agent.” //Annual Review of Nutrition//. 23 (2003): 303-313.
*Szapary, Philippe O. et al. “Guggulipid for the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia.” //JAMA//. 290.6 (2003): 765-772.

Descriptions of ginger and gingerol and shogaol:
*Isa, Yasuka et al. “6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol, the pungent of ginger, inhibit TNF-α mediated downregulation of adiponectin expression via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.” //Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications//. 373.3 (2008): 429-434.
*Ali, Badreldin et al. “Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (//Zingiber officinale// Roscoe): A review of recent research.” //Food and Chemical Toxicology//. 46.2 (2008): 409-420.

Information on modern natural products expeditions:
*“[[New discoveries to science from Kew|http://www.kew.org/science/new-discoveries/]].” //Kew//. December 2009.
*[[Peckerwood Garden and the Peckerwood Garden Conservation Foundation|http://www.peckerwoodgarden.com/]].
*[[Quarryhill Botanical Garden|http://www.quarryhillbg.org/]]. 

Information on bioprospecting and ethnopharmacology:
*Rosenthal, Joshua P. “A Benefit-sharing case study for the Conference of Parties to Convention on Biological Diversity.” //The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program//.
*“[[Benefits-Sharing in the National Parks Environmental Impact Statement: NPS Benefits-Sharing and the Law|http://www.nature.nps.gov/benefitssharing/legal.cfm]].” //National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior//.
*Raza, Moshin. “A role for physicians in ethnopharmacology and drug discovery.” //Journal of Ethnopharmacology//. 104.3 (2006): 297-301. 

Back to [[Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Intellectual property and patent laws in the United States:
*“Utility Examination Guidelines.” //Fed. Regist//. 66.4 (2001).
*Demaine, Linda J. and Aaron X. Fellmeth. “Patent Law: Natural Substances and Patentable Inventions.” //Science//. 300.5624 (2003): 1375-1376.
*//Ferderico. supra Note. 75 at 967//.
*Behringer, John W. “Microorganism Patents.” //J. Pat. Off. Soc'y//. 128.63 (1981): 130-31.
*Duffy, John F. “Rules and Standards on the Forefront of Patentability.” //William & Mary Law Review//. 51.2 (2009): 609-653.

The African Intellectual Property Organization, the Convention for Biological Diversity, and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights:
*Bodeker, Gerard. “Traditional Medical Knowledge, Intellectual Property Rights, and Benefit-Sharing.” //Cardozo Journal of International and Company Law//. 11 (2003-2004): 785–814.
*Evans, Louis and Kado Muir. //Plants for People: Intellectual Property Rights for Traditional Owners About Plants: Background Paper With Specific Reference to Australian Aboriginal Peoples and Plants, Presented to DKCRC May 2007//. DKCRC Working Paper 32. Desert Knowledge CRC, Alice Springs.
*“Intellectual Property and Traditional Cultural Expression/Folklore.” //Booklet No.1//. World Intellectual Property Organization.
*Rosenthal, Joshua P. “A Benefit-sharing case study for the Conference of Parties to Convention on Biological Diversity.” //The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program//. 

First attempted patent on a plant, 1889:
*//Ex parte Latimer, 12 March 1889 (C.D., 46 O.G. 1638), U.S. Patent Office, Decisions of the Commissioner of Patents and of the United States Courts in Patent Cases, 1889//. Washington, D. C.: US Government Printing Office, 1890: pp. 123-127.

*Information on biopiracy:
*Mgbeoji, Ikechi. //Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants and Indigenous Knowledge//. Vancouver: UBC Press (2006).
*Shiva, Vandana. //Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge//. Boston, MA: South End Press (1997).

Details on //Hoodia// and P57:
*van Heerden, Fanie R. et al. “An appetite suppressant from //Hoodia// species.” //Phytochemistry//. 68.20 (2007): 2545-2553.
*van Heerden, Fanie R. “//Hoodia gordonii//: A natural appetite suppressant.” //Journal of Ethnopharmacology//. 119.3 (2008): 434-437.
*“The San and the CSIR announce a benefit-sharing agreement for potential anti-obesity drug.” //CSIR//. 24 March 2003.

Vandana Shiva and her statements on biopiracy:
*Shiva, Vandana. //Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge//. Boston, MA: South End Press (1997).

Information on maca and the Quechua Indians:
*“Maca: Traditional Knowledge, New World.” //The Trade & Environment Database//. American University, The School of International Service.
*ETC Group. “Peruvian Farmers and Indigenous People Denounce Maca Patents: Extract of Andean Root Crop Patented for 'Natural Viagra' Properties.” //Genotype//. 3 July 2002.
*Gonzales, Gustavo F. et al. “//Lepidium meyenii// (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men.” //Asian J. Androl//. 3 (2001): 301-303.
*Brooks, Nicole K. et al. “Beneficial effects of //Lepidium meyenii// (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content.” //Menopause//. 15.6 (2008): 1157-1162.
*López-Fando, A. et al. “//Lepidium peruvianum// chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress.” //Phytotherapy Research//. 18.6 (2004): 474-474.

Information on the Peruvian statement concerning biopiracy:
*Document Submitted by Peru. “[[Combating Biopiracy: The Peruvian Experience|http://www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/tk/en/wipo_grtkf_ic_11/wipo_grtkf_ic_11_13.pdf]].” //Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore//. World Intellectual Property Organization. Eleventh Session, Geneva. 3-12 July 2007.

Information on biopiracy in India, including the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library and revoked patents on curcumin and neem products:
*Singh, Seema. “From Exotic Spice to Modern Drug?” //Cell//. 130.5 (2007): 765-768.
*“[[Bio-Piracy of Traditional Knowledge|http://www.tkdl.res.in/tkdl/langdefault/Common/Biopiracy.asp?GL=Eng]].” //Traditional Knowledge Digital Library//. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
*Merson, John. “Bio-Prospecting or Bio-Piracy: Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity in a Colonial and Postcolonial Context.” //Osiris//. 2nd Series. 15 (2000): 282-296.
*Sheridan, Cormac. “EPO neem patent revocation revives biopiracy debate.” //Nature Biotechnology//. 23 (2005): 511-512.

Information on the University of Georgia and the drug discovery project among the Maya:
*Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT). “[[Project Information: Drug Discovery and Biodiversity Among the Maya|http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_description.cfm?projectnumber=5U01TW001009-03]].” //U.S. Department of Health and Human Services//. USA.gov.
*Dalton, Rex. “Political uncertainty halts bioprospecting in Mexico.” //Nature//. 408.278 (16 Nov. 2000).
*“Biopiracy Project in Chiapas, Mexico Denounced by Mayan Indigenous Groups: University of Georgia Refuses to Halt Project.” //ETC Group//. 1 Dec. 1999.
*McManis, Charles R. (ed.). //Biodiversity and the Law: Intellectual Property, Biotechnology and Traditional Knowledge//. London; Sterling, VA: Earthscan (2007).
*Rosenthal, Joshua P. “Equitable Sharing of Biodiversity Benefits: Agreements on Genetic Resources.” //Investing in Biological Diversity: Proceedings of the Cairns Conference, OECD 1997.//
*Rosenthal, Joshua P. “Politics, Culture, and Governance in the Development of Prior Informed Consent in Indigenous Communities.” //Current Anthropology//. 47.1 (2006): 119-142.

Descriptions of other ICBG-funded projects:
*“[[ICBG Awards for 2009|http://www.fic.nih.gov/programs/research_grants/icbg/awards09.htm]].” //U.S. National Institutes for Health: John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences//. USA.gov.
*“[[Panama ICBG Program|http://www.chemistry.ucsc.edu/~rogerl/ICBG/index.html]].”
*Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT). “[[Project Information: ICBG: Training, Conservation and Drug Discovery Using Panamanian Organisms|http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_description.cfm?projectnumber=5U01TW006634-07]].” //U.S. Department of Health and Human Services//. USA.gov.
*Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT). “[[Project Information: Biodiversity Conservation and Drug Discovery in Madagascar|http://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_description.cfm?projectnumber=5U01TW000313-17]].” //U.S. Department of Health and Human Services//. USA.gov.

Coiba Islands designation as a World Heritage site and involvement of the ICBG program:
*“Panama prospecting—going for the green.” //Global Health Matters//. 8.3 (May-June 2009).
*Aguilera, Mario C. “Discovering Diversity In The Tropics: Scripps researchers hunt for exotic medicine sources in Panama's diverse richness.” //Explorations//. July/August 2009.

Information on U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act:
*U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “[[Overview of Dietary Supplements|http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/ConsumerInformation/ucm110417.htm]].” //U.S. Department of Health and Human Services//.

The adulteration of dietary supplements from Asia:
*Smolinske, Susan C. “Herbal Product Contamination and Toxicity.” //Journal of Pharmacy Practice//. 18.3 (2005): 188-208.
*Harkey, Martha R. et al. “Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations.” //American Journal of Clinical Nutrition//. 73.6 (2001): 1101-1106.
*Ko, Richard J. “Adulterants in Asian patent medicines.” //New England Journal of Medicine//. 339.847 (1998).

Information on PC-SPES:
*Ades, Terri et al. “PC-SPES: Current Evidence and Remaining Questions.” //CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians//. 51.3 (2001): 199-204.
*News Briefs. “PC-SPES Found to Contain Prescription Drugs.” //CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians//. 52.4 (2002): 188-189.
*Reynolds, Tom. “Contamination of PC-SPES Remains a Mystery.” //Journal of the National Cancer Institute//. 94.17 (2002): 1266-1268.
*Chang, Sam S. “Treatment Options for Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer.” //Reviews in Urology//. 9.Suppl.2 (2007): S13-S18.

Information on the adulteration of weight-loss dietary supplements:
*Marcus, Donald M. and Arthur P. Grollman. “Botanical Medicines—The Need for New Regulations.” //New England Journal of Medicine//. 347.25 (2002): 2073-2076.
*Corns, C. and K. Metcalfe. “Risks associated with herbal slimming remedies.” //Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health//. 122.4 (2002): 213-219.

Details about new techniques being developed to detect adulterants in dietary supplements:
*Chen Y. et al. “Determination of synthetic drugs used to adulterate botanical dietary supplements using QTRAP LC-MS/MS.” //Food Additives and Contaminants//. 26.5 (2009): 595-603.

Information on the Medicinal Plant Specialist Group:
*IUCN SSC. “[[Medicinal Plant Specialist Group|http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/about_ssc/specialist_groups/directory_specialist_groups/directory_sg_plants/ssc_medicinalplant_home/]].” //IUCN//.

Number of species of plants used medicinally:
*Schippmann, Uwe, Leaman, Danna, and A.B. Cunningham. “Chapter 6: A Comparison of Cultivation and Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Under Sustainability Aspects.” in Bogers, R.J., Craker, Lyle E. and Dagmar Lange (eds.). //Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Agricultural, Commercial, Ecological, Legal, Pharmacological, and Social Aspects//. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer (2006).

Number of medicinal plants traded commercially:
*Mohammad Iqbal, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Forestry Dept. //International Trade in Non-Wood Forest Products: An Overview. Working Paper//. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (1993).
*Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. //Sustainable Management of Non-Timber Forest Resources//. CBD Technical Series, No. 6. Montreal: The Secretariat (2001).

Information on international standards for the collection of medicinal plants:
*IUCN Medicinal Plant Specialist Group. //International Standard for Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (ISSC-MAP)//. Version 1.0. Bonn, Germany: Bundesamt für Naturschutz (2007).

Estimated $60 billion (U.S.) spent on herbal products worldwide annually:
*United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. //Systems and National Experiences for Protecting Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices. Background Note by the UNCTAD Secretariat//. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2000).
*Raw Materials, Tropical and Horticultural Products Service Commodities and Trade Division, Economic and Social Department, FAO. “Trade in Medicinal Plants.” //FAO Rome (Italy)//. Internet Resource. 

American ginseng population vulnerability in Canadian forests:
*Nantel, Patrick, Gagnon, Danial and Andrée Nault. “Population Viability Analysis of American Ginseng and Wild Leek Harvested in Stochastic Environments.” //Conservation Biology//. 10.2 (1996): 608-621.

Information on red stinkwood in Africa:
*Ingram, Verina et al. “National Prunus Africana Management Plan Cameroon.” //Mobilisation et Renforcement des Capacites des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Impliquees dans les Filieres des Produits Forestiers Non Ligneux en Afrique Centrale//. June 2009.

Back to [[Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Notes and sources

Living Planet Index:
*Loh, Jonathan et al. “The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity.” //Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society//. 360.1454 (2005): 289-295.

Information on the monitoring of plant diversity:
*Lughadha, E. Nic et al. “Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action.”  //Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society//. 360.1454 (2005): 359-372.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD):
*Convention on Biological Diversity. “[[About the Convention|http://www.cbd.int/convention/about.shtml]]” SCBD.

Information on financial resources provided by the Convention on Biological Diversity and on the participation of less-industrialized countries:
*Convention on Biological Diversity. “[[Financial Resources and Mechanism|http://www.cbd.int/financial/]].” //SCBD//.
*Convention on Biological Diversity. “[[List of Parties|http://www.cbd.int/convention/parties/list/]].” //SCBD//.

Explanation of the initiation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC):
*Convention on Biological Diversity. “[[Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: Introduction|http://www.cbd.int/gspc/intro.shtml]].” //SCBD//.

Information on the various organizations supporting the Global Partnership for Plant Conservation (GPPC):
*“[[GPPC Partners|http://www.plants2010.org/]].” //BCGI//.

The 16 targets for the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC):
*Convention on Biological Diversity. “[[Global Strategy: Global Targets for 2010|http://www.cbd.int/gspc/targets.shtml]].” //SCBD//.

Information on the progress of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) reported in 2009:
*Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Botanic Gardens Conservation International. //The Convention on Biological Diversity Plant Conservation Report: A Review of Progress in Implementing the Global Strategy of Plant Conservation (GSPC)//. Montreal, QC, Canada: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009).

Information about Kings Park and Botanic Garden:
*“[[Kings Park and Botanic Garden|http://www.bgpa.wa.gov.au/kings-park]].” //Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority//.

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Project and the Southwest China Germplasm Bank of Wild Species:
*Kew.org. “About Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership.” //Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew//.
*“Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership—our projects in China and Central Asia.” //Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew//. 22 Sept. 2009.

Information on CITES:
*Cites.org. “[[What is CITES?|http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.shtml]]” //Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora//.

Information on red stinkwood CITES implementation in African countries:
*//Prunus africana// Working Group. “Summary Report of the Workshop on Implementation of Review of Significant Trade recommendations for //Prunus africana//.” //CITES Secretariat//. Naivasha, Kenya. 8-11 Sept. 2008.

Details on the role of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in serving as a scientific authority to CITES:
*Kew.org. “[[CITES and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew|http://www.kew.org/conservation/cites-ind.html]].” //Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew//.

Information on the U.S. Endangered Species Act:
*FWS.gov. “[[The Endangered Species Act and What We Do|http://www.fws.gov/endangered/whatwedo.html]].” //U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program//.

Passages from Section 2, Findings, Purposes, and Policies of the U.S. Endangered Species Act:
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. //Endangered Species Act of 1973: As Amended Through the 108th Congress//. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Delisted ESA species and listed species that have gone extinct:
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Conservation Online System. “[[Species Reports: Delisted Report|http://ecos.fws.gov/tess_public/DelistingReport.do]].” //U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service//.

Information on Penland beardtongue:
*Center for Plant Conservation. “[[CPC National Collection Plant Profile: //Penstemon penlandii//.|http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=7030]]” //CPC//.
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Conservation Online System. “[[Species Profile: Penland beardtongue (//Penstemon penlandii//).|http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=Q2YC]]” //U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service//.
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. “Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to Determine //Astragalus osterhoutil// and //Penstemon penlandii// to be Endangered Species.” //Federal Register//. 54.133 (1989): 29658-29663.

Information on Osterhout milk-vetch:
*Center for Plant Conservation. “[[CPC National Collection Plant Profile: //Astragalus osterhoutii//.|http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/collection/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=461]]” //CPC//.
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Conservation Online System. “[[Species Profile: Osterhout milk-vetch (//Astragalus osterhoutii//).|http://ecos.fws.gov/speciesProfile/profile/speciesProfile.action?spcode=Q1TA]]” //U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service//.
*U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. “Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to Determine //Astragalus osterhoutii// and //Penstemon penlandii// to be Endangered Species.” //Federal Register//. 54.133 (1989): 29658-29663.

Details on the Himalayan mayapple, podophyllotoxin, and its derivatives, etoposide and teniposide:
*Wu, Yingming et al. “Enantioselective Sequential Conjugate Addition−Allylation Reactions: A Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-Podophyllotoxin.” //Org. Lett//. 11.3 (2009): 597–600.
*Casey, Mike and Claire M. Keaveney. “A concise stereocontrolled formal total synthesis of (±)-podophyllotoxin using sulfoxide chemistry.” //Chem. Commun//. (2004): 184-185.
*Moraes, Rita M. et al. “The American Mayapple and its Potential for Podophyllotoxin Production.” Found in: Janick, Jules and Anna Whipkey (eds.). //Trends in New Crops and New Uses//. Conference Proceedings. Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press (2002).

Seventeen times the amount of podophyllotoxin produced by Himalayan mayapple compared with other species of the same genus:
*Kharkwal, A. et al. “Genetic variation within and among the populations of //Podophyllum hexandrum// Royle (Podophyllaceae) in western Himalaya.” //PGR Newsletter//. 156 (2008): 68-72.
*Jackson, D.E. and P.M. Dewick. “Biosynthesis of Podophyllum lignans. II: Interconversion of aryltetralin lignan in //Podophyllum hexandrum//.” //Phytochemistry//. 23 (1984): 1037–1042.

CITES Appendix status of Himalayan mayapple:
*CITES Species Database. “//[[Podophyllum hexandrum|http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html]]//.” //CITES//.

Harvesting of Himalayan mayapple in the wild for medicinal purposes:
*Watson, Ronald R. and Victor R. Preedy (eds.). //Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice//. Wallingford, UK; Cambridge, MA: CABI (2008).

Red sandalwood CITES and IUCN status:
*CITES Species Database. “//[[Pterocarpus santalinus|http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html]]//.” //CITES//.
*The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. “//[[Pterocarpus santalinus|http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/32104/0]]//.” //IUCN Red List//.

Information on the medicinal properties of red sandalwood:
*Latheef, Shaik Abdul et al. “A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India.” //Bioinformation//. 2.6 (2008): 260-262.
*Kondeti, Vinay Kumar et al. “Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus bark, on blood glucose, serum lipids, plasma insulin and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” //Food and Chemical Toxicology//. Online 21 February 2010.

Decreased incidence of acute heart attacks following the institution of smoking bans:
*Lightwood, James M. and Stanton A. Glantz. “Declines in Acute Myocardial Infarction After Smoke-Free Laws and Individual Risk Attributable to Secondhand Smoke.” //Circulation//. 120.14 (2009): 1373-1379.

Information on ecological economics:
*Constanza, Robert et al. “The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital.” //Nature//. 387 (15 May 1997): 253-260.
*Daily, Gretchen et al. “The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value.” //Science//. 289 (21 July 2000): 395-396.

Information on place attachment as it relates to nature and national parks:
*Warzecha, Cynthia A. and David W. Lime. “Place Attachment in Canyonlands National Park: Visitors' Assessment of Setting Attributes on the Colorado and Green Rivers.” //Journal of Park and Recreation Administration//. 19.1 (2001): 59-78.
*Williams, Daniel R. and Stewart, Susan I. “Sense of Place: An Elusive Concept That is Finding a Home in Ecosystem Management.” //Journal of Forestry//. 96.5 (1998): 18-23.

Concerning environmental psychology and place attachment:
*Williams, Daniel R. and Michael E. Patterson. “Environmental Meaning and Ecosystem Management: Perspectives from Environmental Psychology and Human Geography.” //Society and Natural Resources//. 9 (1996): 507-521. 

Rate of major drug loss every two years as a result of plant and animal extinction:
*Groombridge, Brian and Martin Jenkins, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Environment Programme. //World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century//. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press (2002).

Number of new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1996, 2002, and 2007:
*Hughes, Bethan. “2008 FDA Drug Approvals.” //Nature Reviews Drug Discovery//. 8 (February 2009): 93-96.

Pfizer Inc. settlement over misleading marketing of Bextra, Lyrica, Geodon, and Zyvox in 2009:
*Rockoff, Jonathan D. and Brent Kendall. “Pfizer to Plead Guilty To Improper Marketing.” //The Wall Street Journal//. Online 3 Sept. 2009. 

Estimated value of prescription drugs in the United States that are derived from wild species and rate of major drug loss every two years as a result of plant and animal extinction:
*Groombridge, Brian and Martin Jenkins, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Environment Programme. //World Atlas of Biodiversity: Earth's Living Resources in the 21st Century//. Berkeley, Calif.; London: University of California Press (2002).

Information on marketed pharmaceuticals derived from marine organisms:
*Marris, Emma. “Marine natural products: Drugs from the deep.” //Nature//. 443 (26 Oct. 2006): 904-905.

The discovery and applications of ziconotide:
*“[[Snail venom painkiller launched|http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5165124.stm]].” //BBC News//. 10 July 2006.

Information on ecteinascidin 743:
*Chen, Jinchun et al. “Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743.” //Journal of the American Chemical Society//. 128.1 (2006): 87-89.
*Boudou, Laurence et al. “Trabectedin for the management of soft-tissue sarcoma.” //Expert Rev//. Anticancer Ther. 9.6 (2009): 727-737.
*Cuevas, Carmen et al. “Synthesis of Ecteinascidin ET-743 and Phthalascidin Pt-650 from Cyanosafracin B.” //Org. Lett//. 2.16 (2000): 2545-2548.

Details on the development of Aplidin:
*Mitsiades, Constantine S. et al. “Aplidin, a Marine Organism–Derived Compound with Potent Antimyeloma Activity In vitro and In vivo.” //Cancer Research//. 68.13 (2008): 5216-5225.
*“[[The FDA Approves Production Process Strategy Of Aplidin(R), New Marine-Derived Anti-Tumor Agent, Proposed By PharmaMar|http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/126754.php]].” //Medical News Today//. 24 Oct. 2008.

Oriental shrimp and isatin:
*Gil-Turnes, M. Sofia, Hay, Mark E. and William Fenical. “Symbiotic Marine Bacteria Chemically Defend Crustacean Embryos from a Pathogenic Fungus.” //Science//. 246 (1989): 116-118.
*Glover, V. et al. “The psychopharmacology of isatin: a brief review.” //Stress and Health//. 14.4 (1998): 225-229.

Information on the cyanobacterium //Lyngbya majuscula// and somocystinamide A:
*Wrasidlo, Wolf et al. “The marine lipopeptide somocystinamide A triggers apoptosis via caspase 8.” //PNAS//. 105.7 (2008): 2313-2318.

Percent of marine species that rely on coral reefs for food or habitat:
*Spalding, Mark D., Ravilious, Corinna and Edmund P. Green. //World Atlas of Corals//. Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California press (2001). 

Coral reefs make up less than one percent of the ocean's habitat:
*Davidson, Mary Gray. “Protecting Coral Reefs: The Principal National and International Legal Instruments.” //Harvard Environmental Law Review//. 26.2 (2002): 499. 

Ecosystems services value of all the world's coral reefs combined and of the coral triangle:
*Cesar, Herman, Burke, Lauretta and Lida Pet-Soede. //The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation//. Arnhem, The Netherlands: Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting (2003).
*Wilkinson, Clive R., Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and International Coral Reef Initiative. //Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008//. Townsville, Australia: Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Reef and Rainforest Research Centre (2008).

Epibatidine discovery in skin extracts of Ecuadorian poison frogs:
*Badio, B. et al. “Epibatidine: Discovery and Definition as a Potent Analgesic and Nicotinic Agonist.” //Med. Chem. Res//. 4 (1994): 440-448.

Information on batrachotoxin in //Phyllobates// and pumiliotoxins in //Phyllobates// and //Dendrobates// poison dart frogs:
*Daly, John William. “Thirty Years of Discovering Arthropod Alkaloids in Amphibian Skin.” //Journal of Natural Products//. 61.1 (1998): 162-172.

Amphibian chytridiomycosis distribution:
*Fisher, Matthew C., Garner, Trenton W.J. and Susan F. Walker. “Global Emergence of //Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis// and Amphibian Chytridiomycosis in Space, Time, and Host.” //Annual Review of Microbiology//. 63 (2009): 291-310.

Information on amphibians as indicator species:
*USGS.gov. “[[Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative|http://armi.usgs.gov/]].” USGS.

Back to [[Resources|Resources]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae (heather family)
Latin name: //Gaultheria mucronata// (L. f.) Hook. & Arn.
Native range: South America

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Chenopodia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae (nightshade family)
Latin name: //Capsicum// L.
Native range: Tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas

Back to [[Solanaceae|Solanaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Chiloglottis trapeziformis// Fitzg.
Native range: Australia and New Zealand

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Gentianaceae (gentian family)
Latin name: //Gentiana sino-ornata// Balf. f.
Native range: China

Back to [[Gentianaceae|Gentianaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Latin name: //Rhododendron fortunei// Lindl.
Native range: China

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Chrysanthemum x morifolium// Ramat.
Hybrid species; cultivated

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Chryso]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae (coffee family)
Latin name: //Cinchona officinalis// L.
Native range: Peru and surrounding rainforest regions

Back to [[Rubiaceae|Rubiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Clusia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae (protea family)
Latin name: //Banksia integrifolia// L.f.
Native range: Australia

Back to [[Proteaceae|Proteaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Commelina]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Commelinal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: bastard gumwood: //Commidendrum rotundifolium// (Roxb.) DC.; false gumwood: //C. spurium// (G. Forst.) DC.; St. Helena gumwood: //C. robustum// (Roxb.) DC.; scrubwood: //C. rugosum// (Dryand) DC.
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: //C. rotundifolium//: extinct in the wild; //C. spurium//: critically endangered; //C. robustum//: endangered; //C. rugosum//: vulnerable

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Erigeron philadelphicus// L.
Native range: North America

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae (plantain family)
Latin name: //Hippuris vulgaris// L.
Native range: Widespread

Back to [[Plantaginaceae|Plantaginaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: [[Ceratophyllales]]
Family: Ceratophyllaceae
Latin name: //Ceratophyllum demersum// L.
Native range: Western North America

Back to [[Ceratophyllaceae|Ceratophyllaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Dogwood family

<<list filter [tag[Corna]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cornal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae (true grass family)
Latin name: //Digitaria// Haller
Native range: North and South America, the Caribbean, Fiji, Africa, Asia, and Australia; most species found in temperate regions

Back to [[Poaceae|Poaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Geraniales
Family: Geraniaceae  
Latin name: //Geranium spinosum// Burm.f. (//Pelargonium spinosum//)
Native range: South Africa

Back to [[Geraniaceae|Geraniaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae (Palmae; palm family)
Latin name: //Cryosophila bartlettii// R.Evans; //C. cookii// Bartlett; //C. grayumii// R.Evans; root-spine palm, //C. williamsii// P.H. Allen
Native range: //C. bartlettii// native to Panama; //C. cookii// and //C. grayumii// native to Costa Rica; //C. williamsii// native to Honduras
Conservation status: //C. bartlettii//: endangered; //C. cookii// and //C. grayumii//: critically endangered; //C. williamsii// extinct in the wild
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cucurbita]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cucurbital]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Cupressa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae sensu lato (mallow family)
Latin name: //Theobroma grandiflorum// (Willd. ex Spreng.) K. Schum.
Native range: Tropical rainforests of South America

Back to [[Malvaceae sensu lato|Malvaceae sensu lato]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Sedge family
<<list filter [tag[Cypera]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Asparagaceae (sometimes placed in other families)
Latin name: //Dasylirion// Zucc.
Native range: Mexico

Back to [[Asparagaceae|Asparagaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Daviesia// Sm.
Native range: Australia 

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Polypodiales (Blechnales)
Family: Blechnaceae
Latin name: //Blechnum spicant// (L.) Sm.
Native range: Western United States, western Canada, Europe, western Asia, and Africa

Back to [[Blechnaceae|Blechnaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
[[About]]
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Dendrobium// Sw.
Native range: Asia, Southeast Asia, and islands in the South Pacific and Indian oceans

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Dipsacal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Rosa canina// L.
Native range: Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Madeira Islands, and Canary Islands

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Latin name: //Pseudotsuga menziesii// (Mirb.) Franco
Native range: Western North America, from central California to British Columbia
Conservation status: Lower risk/least concern

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Handkerchief tree
Order: Cornales
Family: Nyssaceae (tupelo family) or Cornaceae (dogwood family)
Latin name: //Davidia involucrata// Baillon
Native range: China

Back to [[Cornaceae|Cornaceae]]
Back to [[Nyssaceae|Nyssaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Dryopterida]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Senecio cineraria// DC. 
Native range: Mediterranean

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Meliaceae (mahogany family)
Latin name: //Dysoxylum binectariferum// (Roxb.) Hook. f. ex Hiern
Native range: India, China, and Southeast Asia

Back to [[Meliaceae|Meliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Nymphaeales
Family: Nymphaeaceae (water lily family)
Latin name: //Nymphaea caerulea// Savigny.
Native range: Africa and Asia

Back to [[Nymphaeaceae|Nymphaeaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ephedrales
Family: Ephedraceae (ephedra family)
Latin name: //Ephedra// L.
Native range: China and other parts of Asia, northern Africa, South America, North America, and Southern Europe

Back to [[Ephedraceae|Ephedraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Ephedra family

<<list filter [tag[Ephed]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ephedral]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Heather family

<<list filter [tag[Erica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Erical]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Euphorbia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Helichrysum bracteatum// (Vent.)
Native range: Australia

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
This is an example page that shows how to hide the toolbar, tags, and subtitle.

Also, see http://tiddlywiki.org/wiki/TiddlyWiki_Markup for markup instructions.

<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family

<<list filter [tag[Faba]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Fabal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Fouquieriaceae (ocotillo family)
Latin name: //Fouquieria// Kunth
Native range: Southwestern United States and northern Mexico

Back to [[Fouquieriaceae|Fouquieriaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Ocotillo family

<<list filter [tag[Fouq]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Aerides rosea// Loddiges ex Lindl. & Paxt.
Native range: Northeastern India and Southeast Asia

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Gentian family

<<list filter [tag[Gentiana]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Gentianal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Gerania]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Geranial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
!!!First, you will need to save this file to your local harddrive to edit. [[Right click and save as|tw_website_template_jdr.html]] to download this page for customization. Then open the saved version in a browser. After modifying, you can upload this file to a webserver to host your own site.

!!!To make this more suitable as a website, the following changes were made to the default [[empty|empty.html]] ~TiddlyWiki:
# Imported HideTiddlerTags, HideTiddlerSubtitle, HideTiddlerToolbar, ReplaceDoubleClick, SinglePageModePlugin, ToggleRightSidebar, InlineJavascriptPlugin from http://www.tiddlytools.com
# Created an [[Example]] tiddler showing how to hide toolbars, tags, and subtitle.
# Created a zzConfigTweaks tiddler to make the default options stick and tagged it with systemConfig tag so it loads
# Added the rightsidebar toggle dot to the subtitle
# Added {{{<span macro="tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick with: shift doubleclick"></span>}}} to the ViewTemplate
# Added these notes to the GettingStarted tiddler

!!!With the above changes, by default the rightsidebar is hidden. You can toggle it by clicking the period at the end of the subtitle. To edit a tiddler, you hold shift and double click the tiddler title. If you edit the [[Example]] tiddler, you can see the last three lines that hide the parts of a tiddler to make it look cleaner for a website.

To start customizing this blank TiddlyWiki, modify the following tiddlers:
* SiteTitle & SiteSubtitle: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* MainMenu: The menu (usually on the left)
* DefaultTiddlers: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
Fluted gum tree
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
Latin name: //Eucalyptus salubris// F. Muell.
Native range: Western Australia 

Back to [[Myrtaceae|Myrtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)
Latin name: //Zingiber officinale// Roscoe
Native range: Southeast Asia

Back to [[Zingiberaceae|Zingiberaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Maidenhair tree
Order: Ginkgoales
Family: Ginkgoaceae
Latin name: //Ginkgo biloba// L.
Native range: China
Conservation status: Endangered

Back to [[Ginkgoaceae|Ginkgoaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ginkgoa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ginkgoal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Latin name: //Abies grandis// (Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl.
Native range: Western United States and western Canada
Conservation status: Lower risk/least concern

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Latin name: //Forsythia viridissima// Lindl.
Native range: East Asia

Back to [[Oleaceae|Oleaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Burseraceae (myrrh family)
Latin name: //Commiphora mukul// (Stocks) Hook. (C. wightii (Arn.) Bhandari)
Native range: India
Conservation status: Vulnerable in late 1990s; current status pending review

Back to [[Burseraceae|Burseraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Latin name: //Gymnema sylvestre// R. Br.
Native range: India

Back to [[Asclepiadaceae|Asclepiadaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Halo]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Gentianaceae (gentian family)
Latin name: //Gentianella alborosea// (Gilg.) Fabris
Native range: Peru

Back to [[Gentianaceae|Gentianaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/%
|Name|HideTiddlerSubtitle|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HideTiddlerSubtitle|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|hide a tiddler's subtitle (dates/created by) display|

Usage: <<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>>

%/<script>
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	if (!t || t.id=="tiddlerHideTiddlerSubtitle") return;
	var nodes=t.getElementsByTagName("*");
	for (var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++)
		if (hasClass(nodes[i],"subtitle"))
			nodes[i].style.display="none";
</script>
/%
|Name|HideTiddlerTags|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HideTiddlerTags|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|hide a tiddler's tagged/tagging display elements|

Usage: <<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>

%/<script>
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	if (!t || t.id=="tiddlerHideTiddlerTags") return;
	var nodes=t.getElementsByTagName("div");
	for (var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++)
		if (hasClass(nodes[i],"tagged"))
			nodes[i].style.display="none";
</script>
/%
|Name|HideTiddlerToolbar|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#HideTiddlerToolbar|
|Version|0.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|hide a tiddler's toolbar display|

Usage: <<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>

%/<script>
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
	if (!t || t.id=="tiddlerHideTiddlerToolbar") return;
	var nodes=t.getElementsByTagName("*");
	for (var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++)
		if (hasClass(nodes[i],"toolbar"))
			nodes[i].style.display="none";
</script>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Berberidaceae (barberry family)
Latin name: //Podophyllum hexandrum// Royle
Native range: Alpine elevations in the western Himalayas
Conservation status: Designated CITES Appendix II

Back to [[Berberidaceae|Berberidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae (holly family)
Latin name: //Ilex// L.
Native range: Americas, Asia, Africa, and Europe

Back to [[Aquifoliaceae|Aquifoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Gleditsia triacanthos// L.
Native range: Midwestern United States

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae (dogbane family) 
Latin name: //Hoodia// Sweet ex Decne.
Native range: Southern Africa
Conservation status: //H. juttae// Dinter, //H. ruschii// Dinter, and //H. triebneri// (Nel) Bruyns least concern; genus given CITES Appendix II listing

Back to [[Apocynaceae|Apocynaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Hydrocharita]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Hyperica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/***
|Name|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#InlineJavascriptPluginInfo|
|Version|1.9.4|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|Insert Javascript executable code directly into your tiddler content.|
''Call directly into TW core utility routines, define new functions, calculate values, add dynamically-generated TiddlyWiki-formatted output'' into tiddler content, or perform any other programmatic actions each time the tiddler is rendered.
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[InlineJavascriptPluginInfo]]
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2009.02.26 [1.9.4] in $(), handle leading '#' on ID for compatibility with JQuery syntax
|please see [[InlineJavascriptPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.11.08 [1.0.0] initial release
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.InlineJavascriptPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 9, revision: 3, date: new Date(2008,6,11)};

config.formatters.push( {
	name: "inlineJavascript",
	match: "\\<script",
	lookahead: "\\<script(?: src=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: label=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: title=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?(?: key=\\\"((?:.|\\n)*?)\\\")?( show)?\\>((?:.|\\n)*?)\\</script\\>",

	handler: function(w) {
		var lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
		lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			var src=lookaheadMatch[1];
			var label=lookaheadMatch[2];
			var tip=lookaheadMatch[3];
			var key=lookaheadMatch[4];
			var show=lookaheadMatch[5];
			var code=lookaheadMatch[6];
			if (src) { // load a script library
				// make script tag, set src, add to body to execute, then remove for cleanup
				var script = document.createElement("script"); script.src = src;
				document.body.appendChild(script); document.body.removeChild(script);
			}
			if (code) { // there is script code
				if (show) // show inline script code in tiddler output
					wikify("{{{\n"+lookaheadMatch[0]+"\n}}}\n",w.output);
				if (label) { // create a link to an 'onclick' script
					// add a link, define click handler, save code in link (pass 'place'), set link attributes
					var link=createTiddlyElement(w.output,"a",null,"tiddlyLinkExisting",wikifyPlainText(label));
					var fixup=code.replace(/document.write\s*\(/gi,'place.bufferedHTML+=(');
					link.code="function _out(place){"+fixup+"\n};_out(this);"
					link.tiddler=w.tiddler;
					link.onclick=function(){
						this.bufferedHTML="";
						try{ var r=eval(this.code);
							if(this.bufferedHTML.length || (typeof(r)==="string")&&r.length)
								var s=this.parentNode.insertBefore(document.createElement("span"),this.nextSibling);
							if(this.bufferedHTML.length)
								s.innerHTML=this.bufferedHTML;
							if((typeof(r)==="string")&&r.length) {
								wikify(r,s,null,this.tiddler);
								return false;
							} else return r!==undefined?r:false;
						} catch(e){alert(e.description||e.toString());return false;}
					};
					link.setAttribute("title",tip||"");
					var URIcode='javascript:void(eval(decodeURIComponent(%22(function(){try{';
					URIcode+=encodeURIComponent(encodeURIComponent(code.replace(/\n/g,' ')));
					URIcode+='}catch(e){alert(e.description||e.toString())}})()%22)))';
					link.setAttribute("href",URIcode);
					link.style.cursor="pointer";
					if (key) link.accessKey=key.substr(0,1); // single character only
				}
				else { // run inline script code
					var fixup=code.replace(/document.write\s*\(/gi,'place.innerHTML+=(');
					var c="function _out(place){"+fixup+"\n};_out(w.output);";
					try	 { var out=eval(c); }
					catch(e) { out=e.description?e.description:e.toString(); }
					if (out && out.length) wikify(out,w.output,w.highlightRegExp,w.tiddler);
				}
			}
			w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
		}
	}
} )
//}}}

// // Backward-compatibility for TW2.1.x and earlier
//{{{
if (typeof(wikifyPlainText)=="undefined") window.wikifyPlainText=function(text,limit,tiddler) {
	if(limit > 0) text = text.substr(0,limit);
	var wikifier = new Wikifier(text,formatter,null,tiddler);
	return wikifier.wikifyPlain();
}
//}}}

// // GLOBAL FUNCTION: $(...) -- 'shorthand' convenience syntax for document.getElementById()
//{{{
if (typeof($)=='undefined') { function $(id) { return document.getElementById(id.replace(/^#/,'')); } }
//}}}
<<list filter [tag[Iso]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Isoetal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Latin name: //Cryptomeria japonica// (Thunb. ex L.f.) D.Don
Native range: Japan
Conservation status: Lower risk/near threatened

Back to [[Cupressaceae|Cupressaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Jungermannial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
Latin name: //Eucalyptus diversicolor// F. Muell.
Native range: Western Australia 

Back to [[Myrtaceae|Myrtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
 
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae (protea family)
Latin name: //Protea cynaroides// L.
Native range: Southern South Africa

Back to [[Proteaceae|Proteaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae (heather family)
Latin name: //Arctostaphylos uva-ursi// (L.) Spreng.
Native range: Asia, Europe, and Central and North America

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Actinidiaceae (Chinese gooseberry family)
Latin name: //Actinidia deliciosa// (A.Chev.) C.F.Liang.& A.R.Ferguson.
Native range: Asia

Back to [[Actinidiaceae|Actinidiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Sophora tetraptera// J. Mill.
Native range: New Zealand

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Cypripedium// L.
Native range: Asia, Europe, and Central and North America

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Mint family

<<list filter [tag[Lamia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Lamial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Laura]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Laural]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Chrysobalanceae (chrysobalance family)
Latin name: //Licania caldasiana// Cuatrecasas
Native range: Colombia
Conservation status: Extinct 

Back to [[Chrysobalanceae|Chrysobalanceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Glycyrrhiza// L. 
Native range: Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Lily family

<<list filter [tag[Lilia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Lilial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Lupinus// L.
Native range: Widespread

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage, or mustard, family)
Latin name: //Lepidium meyenii// Walp.
Native range: Peru

Back to [[Brassicaceae|Brassicaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae (dogbane family)
Latin name: //Catharanthus roseus// (L.) G.Don. (//Vinca rosea// L.)
Native range: Madagascar

Back to [[Apocynaceae|Apocynaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Magnolia family

<<list filter [tag[Magnol]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Magnolial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
[[About]]
[[The Book]]
[[The Author]]
[[The Plants]]
[[Biophilia Hypothesis]]
[[Photos]]
[[Reviews and Interviews]]
[[Resources]]
[img[University of Arizona Press|Pics/AZpress_use2.jpg][http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/Books/bid2350.htm]]
[img[Buy it on Amazon!|Pics/Rogers_Cover_sm.jpg][http://www.amazon.com/Out-Nature-Plants-Matter-Humanity/dp/0816529698/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1322406212&sr=1-3]]
<<list filter [tag[Malpig]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Malpighial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Mallow family

<<list filter [tag[Malva]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Malval]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<html>
<img src="Pics/yew_berry_header_icons.png" width="910" height="223" usemap="#yew_berry_header_icons" />

<map name="yew_berry_header_icons">
  <area shape="rect" coords="796,9,832,36" href="http://twitter.com/#!/karaerogers#[[http://twitter.com/#!/karaerogers]" alt="Twitter" />
  <area shape="rect" coords="841,10,885,40" href="http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100001872712220#!/profile.php?id=100001872712220&v=wall#[[http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100001872712220#!/profile.php?id=100001872712220&v=wall]]" alt="Facebook" />
</map>
</html>
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae (Palmae; palm family)
Latin name: //Chamaerops humilis// L.
Native range: Northern Africa and southwestern Europe

Back to [[Arecaceae|Arecaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Melanthia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Mahogany family

<<list filter [tag[Melia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Aster pyrenaeus// Desf. ex. DC.
Native range: French Pyrenees and Cantabric Mountains of Spain

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal 'DD MMM YYYY'>><<saveChanges>><<slider chkSliderOptionsPanel OptionsPanel 'options »' 'Change TiddlyWiki advanced options'>>
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)
Latin name: //Phalaenopsis amabilis// (L.) Blume
Native range: Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Australia, and Papua New Guinea

Back to [[Orchidaceae|Orchidaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Fig, or mulberry, family

<<list filter [tag[Mora]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Myrtle family

<<list filter [tag[Myrta]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Myrtal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
Latin name: //Myrtus// L.
Native range: Northern Africa, Western Asia, Southwestern Europe, and Cuba
Conservation status: //M. claraensis// (Urban) Bisse, native to Cuba, critically endangered

Back to [[Myrtaceae|Myrtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Meliaceae (mahogany family)
Latin name: //Azadirachta indica// A. Juss.
Native range: India and Southeast Asia

Back to [[Meliaceae|Meliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae (plantain family)
Latin name: //Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora// (Pennell) D.Y. Hong
Native range: China and Indian subcontinent

Back to [[Plantaginaceae|Plantaginaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Nepen]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Last Updated: 09/26/2014
Copyright © Kara Rogers
kerogers(at)outofnature.net

Water lily family

<<list filter [tag[Nympha]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Nymphaeal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Tupelo family

<<list filter [tag[Nyssa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Holodiscus discolor// (Pursh) Maxim.
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Olea]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Campanulaceae (bellflower family)
Latin name: //Campanula piperi// Howell
Native range: Olympic peninsula

Back to [[Campanulaceae|Campanulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Erigeron flettii// G.N. Jones
Native range: Olympic peninsula

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Violaceae (violet and pansy family)
Latin name: //Viola flettii// Piper
Native range: Olympic peninsula 

Back to [[Violaceae|Violaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)
Latin name: //Papaver somniferum// L.
Native range: Southwestern Europe, Madeira Islands, Canary Islands, northern Africa, and Cyprus

Back to [[Papaveraceae|Papaveraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Orchid family

<<list filter [tag[Orchida]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Broomrape family

<<list filter [tag[Oroban]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Astragalus osterhoutii// M.E. Jones
Native range: Colorado, U.S.
Conservation status: Endangered

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Oxalidal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)
Latin name: //Dicentra formosa// (Andrews) Walp.
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Papaveraceae|Papaveraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Liliales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Latin name: //Trillium ovatum// Pursh
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Melanthiaceae|Melanthiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Taxaceae (yews)
Latin name: //Taxus brevifolia// Nutt
Native range: Pacific coast of North America, from central California to British Columbia
Conservation status: Low risk/near threatened

Back to [[Taxaceae|Taxaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<!--{{{-->
<div id='header' class='header' style='max-width: 910px;'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>

</div>
<div id='mainMenu'>
<span refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></span>
<span class='searchBar' macro='search '></span>
<span id='noticeBoard' refresh='content' tiddler='NoticeBoard'></span>

</div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='MochaSideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea' style='max-width: 750px;'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<div id='contentFooter' refresh='content' tiddler='contentFooter'></div>
<!--}}}-->
Poppy family

<<list filter [tag[Papavera]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae (soapberry family)
Latin name: //Acer griseum// (Franch.) Pax
Native range: China

Back to [[Sapindaceae|Sapindaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Poales
Family: Cyperaceae (sedge family)
Latin name: //Cyperus papyrus// L.
Native range: Africa, including Egypt, and Madagascar

Back to [[Cyperaceae|Cyperaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Haloragaceae
Latin name: //Myriophyllum aquaticum// (Vell.) Verdc.
Native range: South America

Back to [[Haloragaceae|Haloragaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobanchaceae (broomrape family; sometimes placed in Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family) 
Latin name: //Pedicularis// L.
Native range: Americas, Europe, and Asia
Conservation status: //Pedicularis furbishiae// endangered in United States

Back to [[Orobanchaceae|Orobanchaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae (plantain family; formerly placed in Scrophulariaceae figwort family)
Latin name: //Penstemon penlandii// W.A. Weber
Native range: Colorado, U.S.
Conservation status: Endangered

Back to [[Plantaginaceae|Plantaginaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Sapotaceae
Latin name: //Mimusops laurifolia// (Forssk.) Friis.
Native range: Yemen and Ethiopia

Back to [[Sapotaceae|Sapotaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
A collection of photos celebrating nature.

[img[Pics/MillLake1.JPG]]
Mill Lake, Rocky Mountain National Park. (Photo credit: © Jeremy D. Rogers)

[img[Pics/Kara_pacific_yew_small.jpg]]
The author next to a scrubby Pacific yew (//Taxus brevifolia//) on a hike out to Avalanche Lake, Glacier National Park.
(Photo credit: © Jeremy D. Rogers)

[img[Pics/grinnell1_small.jpg]]
A view of Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park.
(Photo credit: © Jeremy D. Rogers)

[img[Pics/treesjdrphoto_sm.JPG]]
Fall colors, Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park, Michigan.
(Photo credit: © Jeremy D. Rogers)

[img[Pics/trees_jdrphoto_2_sm.JPG]]
Lake of the Clouds, Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park, Michigan.
(Photo credit: © Jeremy D. Rogers)

<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Phyllantha]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae (citrus family) 
Latin name: //Pilocarpus// Vahl.
Native range: Central Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America
Conservation status: Local populations of //P. microphyllus// vulnerable

Back to [[Rutaceae|Rutaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Pine family

<<list filter [tag[Pina]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Pinal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: [[Caryophyllales]]
Family: Nepenthaceae
Latin name: //Nepenthes sanguinea// Lindl.
Native range: Asia
Conservation status: Lower risk/conservation dependent

Back to [[Nepenthaceae|Nepenthaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Plantain family

<<list filter [tag[Plantag]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Appendix: Plant Taxonomy List by Common Name

<<list filter [tag[Species]]>>

Sources: USDA Plants Database; USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network; Integrated Taxonomic Information System; Global Biodiversity Information Facility; and various, listed in [[Resources]]. Information on conservation status from 2010, all conservation data from the [[IUCN Red List of Threatened Species|http://www.iucnredlist.org/]].
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
True grass family

<<list filter [tag[Poa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Poal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Blechnales

<<list filter [tag[Polypodial]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Alismatales
Family: Potamogetonaceae (pondweed family)
Latin name: //Potamogeton// L.
Native range: Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe, and the Americas

Back to [[Potamogetonaceae|Potamogetonaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae (willow family)
Latin name: //Populus// L.
Native range: Asia, North America, Africa, Britain, and Europe
Conservation status: //P. pruinosa// Schrenk decreasing; //P. nigra// L. least concern; //P. ilicifolia// (Engl.) Rouleau vulnerable; //P. guzmanantlensis// Vázquez & Cuevas endangered; and //P. berkarensis// Poljakov critically endangered

Back to [[Salicaceae|Salicaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Pondweed family

<<list filter [tag[Potamog]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)
Latin name: //Primula capitata// Hook.
Native range: Temperate and tropical regions of Asia

Back to [[Primulaceae|Primulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Primrose family

<<list filter [tag[Primula]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Protea]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Proteal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Echinacea purpurea// (L.) Moench
Native range: Eastern and central North America

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Isoëtales
Family: Isoëtaceae
Latin name: //Isoëtes// L.
Native range: North America, South America, China, New Zealand, Mediterranean region, Turkey, Middle East, and South Africa
Conservation status: Several species vulnerable, near threatened, or critically endangered

Back to [[Isoëtaceae|Isoëtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Chrysothamnus// Nutt.
Native range: Western North America

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Jungermanniales
Family: Radulaceae
Latin name: //Radula visiniaca// C. Massal.
Native range: Italy
Conservation status: Extinct

Back to [[Radulaceae|Radulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Radula]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Ranunculal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae (heather family)
Latin name: //Phyllodoce empetriformis// (Sm.) D. Don
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)
Latin name: //Papaver rhoeas// L.
Native range: Europe, northern Africa, and temperate and tropical Asia

Back to [[Papaveraceae|Papaveraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family) 
Latin name: //Pterocarpus santalinus// L.f.
Native range: 
Conservation status: Endangered; designated CITES Appendix II

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Prunus africana// (Hook. f.) Kalkman
Native range: Africa and Madagascar
Conservation status: Vulnerable; designated CITES Appendix II

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Liliales
Family: Liliaceae (lily family)
Latin name: //Lilium regale// E.H. Wilson
Native range: Sichuan province of China

Back to [[Liliaceae|Liliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/%
|Name|ReplaceDoubleClick|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ReplaceDoubleClick|
|Version|2.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides|tiddler background click and doubleclick handlers|
|Description|disable doubleclick-to-edit-tiddler or replace doubleclick with shift/ctrl/alt+singleclick|

Usage:
	in tiddler content:
		<<tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick>> or
		<<tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick with: key trigger>>
	in ViewTemplate:
		<span macro="tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick"></span> or
		<span macro="tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick with: key trigger"></span>
where: 
	'key' (optional) is one of: none (default), ctrl, shift, or alt
	'trigger' (optional) is one of: click, doubleclick (default)

* if no key parameter (or "none") is specified, then the double-click action is **disabled** for that tiddler.
* if a key (other than none) is specified, the doubleclick action for the tiddler will only be invoked
	when the key+trigger combination is used.
* note: double-clicking will also trigger the single-click handler.  As a result, when 'click' option is specified,
	either click OR double-click (plus the specified key) will trigger the action.

Revisions:
2.0.0 renamed from ShiftClickToEdit and merged with DoubleClickDisable and added support specifying alternative key+click combination

%/<script>
	var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place); if (!here) return;
	if (here.ondblclick) {
		here.setAttribute("editKey","none");
		if ("$1"=="shift" || "$1"=="ctrl" || "$1"=="alt")
			here.setAttribute("editKey","$1"+"Key");
		var trigger=("$2"=="click")?"onclick":"ondblclick";
		here.save_dblclick=here.ondblclick;
		here.ondblclick=null;
		if (here.getAttribute("editKey")!="none")
			here[trigger]=function(e) {
				var ev=e?e:window.event;
				if (ev[this.getAttribute("editKey")])
					this.save_dblclick.apply(this,arguments);
			}
	}
</script>
<<list filter [tag[ChapterNotes]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Links to reviews, interviews, and excerpts.

Reviews:
[[The Quarterly Review of Biology, December 2013|Pics/the_quarterly_review_of_biology_outofnature.pdf]] (pdf)
[[Journal of Ethnopharmacology|Pics/ethnopharm_bookreview_outofnature.pdf]] (pdf)
[[American Herb Association, 2013|Pics/Rogers, K_Out of Nature_American Herb Association.pdf]] (pdf)
[[Chicago Botanic Garden|http://www.chicagobotanic.org/book/14.4/rogers.php]]
[[ScienceWriters, Summer 2012|https://www.nasw.org/sites/default/files/sciencewriters/SW_summer12.pdf]] (pdf)
[[The Well-read Naturalist|http://www.wellreadnaturalist.com/2012/08/out-of-nature/]]
[[CurledUp.com|http://www.curledup.com/out_of_nature.htm]]
[[Pasatiempo|Pics/Rogers, Kara_OutofNature_Pasatiempo.pdf]] (pdf)
[[Plant Science Bulletin, by Neil A. Harriman|Pics/Rogers, Kara_OutofNature_PlantScienceBulletin.PDF]] (pdf)
[[CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries|Pics/Rogers, Kara_OutofNature_CHOICE.pdf]] (pdf)
[[Book News Inc.|Pics/Rogers, Kara_OutofNature_Refence&ResearchBookNews.pdf]] (pdf)

Interviews:
[[Science Book a Day|http://sciencebookaday.com/2014/05/12/science-book-a-day-interviews-kara-rogers/]] 12 May 2014
[[Environmentally Sound, Bob Lebensold, WVOX. 10 May 2012|Environmentally_Sound_10-May-2012.mp3]] (mp3)

Excerpts: 
[[Excerpt from "Out of Nature": The Role of Plants in Medicine|http://www.sciencefriday.com/blogs/07/03/2012/excerpt-from-out-of-nature-the-role-of-plants-in-medicine.html?series=2&interest=&audience=&author=]] //Science Friday, Naturephiles// 3 July 2012.
[[Excerpts from "Out of Nature": Challenges Facing Biodiversity Conservation|http://sciencefriday.com/blogs/07/10/2012/excerpts-from-out-of-nature-challenges-facing-biodiversity-conservation.html?series=2&interest=&audience=&author=]] //Science Friday, Naturephiles// 10 July 2012.

<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Buckthorn family

<<list filter [tag[Rhamna]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Latin name: //Rhododendron falconeri// Hook.f. 
Native range: Himalayas, northeastern India

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Latin name: //Rhododendron grande// Wight
Native range: Himalayas, northeastern India

Back to [[Ericaceae|Ericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Rose family

<<list filter [tag[Rosa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Rosal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family)
Latin name: //Dipelta floribunda// Maxim.
Native range: China

Back to [[Caprifoliaceae|Caprifoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Coffee family

<<list filter [tag[Rubia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Citrus family

<<list filter [tag[Ruta]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Latin name: //Plukenetia volubilis// L.
Native range: South America

Back to [[Euphorbiaceae|Euphorbiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Willow family

<<list filter [tag[Salica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Rubus spectabilis// (Pursh)
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Soapberry family

<<list filter [tag[Sapin]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Sapindal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Sapota]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae (Palmae; palm family)
Latin name: //Serenoa repens// (W. Bartram) Small
Native range: Southeastern United States

Back to [[Arecaceae|Arecaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Saxifragaceae
Latin name: //Saxifraga// L.
Native range: Americas, Europe, and Asia

Back to [[Saxifragaceae|Saxifragaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Saxifrag]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Saxifragal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae (dogbane family)
Latin name: //Asclepias curassavica// L.
Native range: Tropical regions of the world

Back to [[Apocynaceae|Apocynaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae; legume, or pea, family)
Latin name: //Senna alexandrina// Mill.
Native range: Africa, western Asia, and India

Back to [[Fabaceae|Fabaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ericales
Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)
Latin name: //Primula sikkimensis// Hook.
Native range: Temperate and tropical regions of Asia

Back to [[Primulaceae|Primulaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/***
|Name|SinglePageModePlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#SinglePageModePlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#SinglePageModePluginInfo|
|Version|2.9.6|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|Story.prototype.displayTiddler(), Story.prototype.displayTiddlers()|
|Options|##Configuration|
|Description|Show tiddlers one at a time with automatic permalink, or always open tiddlers at top/bottom of page.|
This plugin allows you to configure TiddlyWiki to navigate more like a traditional multipage web site with only one tiddler displayed at a time.
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[SinglePageModePluginInfo]]
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkSinglePageMode>> Display one tiddler at a time
><<option chkSinglePagePermalink>> Automatically permalink current tiddler
><<option chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers>> Don't close tiddlers that are folded
><<option chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers>> Don't close tiddlers that are being edited
<<option chkTopOfPageMode>> Open tiddlers at the top of the page
<<option chkBottomOfPageMode>> Open tiddlers at the bottom of the page
<<option chkSinglePageAutoScroll>> Automatically scroll tiddler into view (if needed)

Notes:
* The "display one tiddler at a time" option can also be //temporarily// set/reset by including a 'paramifier' in the document URL: {{{#SPM:true}}} or {{{#SPM:false}}}.
* If more than one display mode is selected, 'one at a time' display takes precedence over both 'top' and 'bottom' settings, and if 'one at a time' setting is not used, 'top of page' takes precedence over 'bottom of page'.
* When using Apple's Safari browser, automatically setting the permalink causes an error and is disabled.
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2008.10.17 [2.9.6] changed chkSinglePageAutoScroll default to false
| Please see [[SinglePageModePluginInfo]] for previous revision details |
2005.08.15 [1.0.0] Initial Release.  Support for BACK/FORWARD buttons adapted from code developed by Clint Checketts.
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.SinglePageModePlugin= {major: 2, minor: 9, revision: 6, date: new Date(2008,10,17)};
//}}}
//{{{
config.paramifiers.SPM = { onstart: function(v) {
	config.options.chkSinglePageMode=eval(v);
	if (config.options.chkSinglePageMode && config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink && !config.browser.isSafari) {
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		if (!config.SPMTimer) config.SPMTimer=window.setInterval(function() {checkLastURL();},1000);
	}
} };
//}}}
//{{{
if (config.options.chkSinglePageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink=true;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers=false;
if (config.options.chkTopOfPageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkTopOfPageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkBottomOfPageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkBottomOfPageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageAutoScroll==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageAutoScroll=false;
//}}}
//{{{
config.SPMTimer = 0;
config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
function checkLastURL()
{
	if (!config.options.chkSinglePageMode)
		{ window.clearInterval(config.SPMTimer); config.SPMTimer=0; return; }
	if (config.lastURL == window.location.hash) return; // no change in hash
	var tids=decodeURIComponent(window.location.hash.substr(1)).readBracketedList();
	if (tids.length==1) // permalink (single tiddler in URL)
		story.displayTiddler(null,tids[0]);
	else { // restore permaview or default view
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		if (!tids.length) tids=store.getTiddlerText("DefaultTiddlers").readBracketedList();
		story.closeAllTiddlers();
		story.displayTiddlers(null,tids);
	}
}


if (Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler==undefined)
	Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler,template,animate,slowly)
{
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	var tiddlerElem=document.getElementById(story.idPrefix+title); // ==null unless tiddler is already displayed
	var opt=config.options;
	var single=opt.chkSinglePageMode && !startingUp;
	var top=opt.chkTopOfPageMode && !startingUp;
	var bottom=opt.chkBottomOfPageMode && !startingUp;
	if (single) {
		story.forEachTiddler(function(tid,elem) {
			// skip current tiddler and, optionally, tiddlers that are folded.
			if (	tid==title
				|| (opt.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers && elem.getAttribute("folded")=="true"))
				return;
			// if a tiddler is being edited, ask before closing
			if (elem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") {
				if (opt.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers) return;
				// if tiddler to be displayed is already shown, then leave active tiddler editor as is
				// (occurs when switching between view and edit modes)
				if (tiddlerElem) return;
				// otherwise, ask for permission
				var msg="'"+tid+"' is currently being edited.\n\n";
				msg+="Press OK to save and close this tiddler\nor press Cancel to leave it opened";
				if (!confirm(msg)) return; else story.saveTiddler(tid);
			}
			story.closeTiddler(tid);
		});
	}
	else if (top)
		arguments[0]=null;
	else if (bottom)
		arguments[0]="bottom";
	if (single && opt.chkSinglePagePermalink && !config.browser.isSafari) {
		window.location.hash = encodeURIComponent(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		document.title = wikifyPlain("SiteTitle") + " - " + title;
		if (!config.SPMTimer) config.SPMTimer=window.setInterval(function() {checkLastURL();},1000);
	}
	if (tiddlerElem && tiddlerElem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") { // editing... move tiddler without re-rendering
		var isTopTiddler=(tiddlerElem.previousSibling==null);
		if (!isTopTiddler && (single || top))
			tiddlerElem.parentNode.insertBefore(tiddlerElem,tiddlerElem.parentNode.firstChild);
		else if (bottom)
			tiddlerElem.parentNode.insertBefore(tiddlerElem,null);
		else this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments); // let CORE render tiddler
	} else
		this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments); // let CORE render tiddler
	var tiddlerElem=document.getElementById(story.idPrefix+title);
	if (tiddlerElem&&opt.chkSinglePageAutoScroll) {
		// scroll to top of page or top of tiddler
		var isTopTiddler=(tiddlerElem.previousSibling==null);
		var yPos=isTopTiddler?0:ensureVisible(tiddlerElem);
		// if animating, defer scroll until after animation completes
		var delay=opt.chkAnimate?config.animDuration+10:0;
		setTimeout("window.scrollTo(0,"+yPos+")",delay); 
	}
}

if (Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers==undefined)
	Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers=Story.prototype.displayTiddlers;
Story.prototype.displayTiddlers = function() {
	// suspend single/top/bottom modes when showing multiple tiddlers
	var opt=config.options;
	var saveSPM=opt.chkSinglePageMode; opt.chkSinglePageMode=false;
	var saveTPM=opt.chkTopOfPageMode; opt.chkTopOfPageMode=false;
	var saveBPM=opt.chkBottomOfPageMode; opt.chkBottomOfPageMode=false;
	this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers.apply(this,arguments);
	opt.chkBottomOfPageMode=saveBPM;
	opt.chkTopOfPageMode=saveTPM;
	opt.chkSinglePageMode=saveSPM;
}
//}}}
Why Drugs from Plants Matter to the Future of Humanity<<tiddler ToggleRightSidebar with: ".">>
[img[Pics/yew_berry_header2.JPG]]

Out of Nature{{justifyright{
[img[Twitter|Pics/twitter_nature_icon.png][http://twitter.com/#!/karaerogers]][img[Facebook|Pics/facebook_nature_icon.png][http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100001872712220#!/profile.php?id=100001872712220&v=wall]]
}}}
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Latin name: //Picea sitchensis// (Bong.) Carrière
Native range: Western United States and western Canada

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family)
Latin name: //Symphoricarpos// Duhamel
Native range: Central America and North America; S. sinensis native to China

Back to [[Caprifoliaceae|Caprifoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Nightshade family

<<list filter [tag[Solana]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Solanal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Valerianaceae (valerian family)
Latin name: //Nardostachys grandiflora// DC. (or N. jatamansi)
Native range: Southeast Asia, India, and China

Back to [[Valerianaceae|Valerianaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Spiraea// L.
Native range: Asia, including China, Mongolia, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Taiwan, North Korea, and South Korea; several species native to Europe and North America

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Polypodiales (Blechnales)
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Latin name: //Dryopteris expansa// (Hoffm.) A. Gray
Native range: Asia and Europe

Back to [[Dryopteridaceae|Dryopteridaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Osteospermum sanctae-helenae// Norlindh
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: Critically endangered

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malvales
Family: Sterculiaceae
Latin name: //Trochetiopsis ebenus// Cronk.
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: Critically endangered

Back to [[Sterculiaceae|Sterculiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rhamnales (sometimes placed in Rosales)
Family: Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family)
Latin name: //Nesiota elliptica// (Roxb.) Hook.f.
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: Extinct

Back to [[Rhamnaceae|Rhamnaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malvales
Family: Sterculiaceae
Latin name: //Trochetiopsis erythroxylon// (Forst.f.) Marais
Native range: Saint Helena
Conservation status: Extinct in the wild

Back to [[Sterculiaceae|Sterculiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae (sometimes placed in Hypericaceae)
Latin name: //Hypericum perforatum// L.
Native range: Africa, Asia, and Europe

Back to [[Clusiaceae|Clusiaceae]]
Back to [[Hypericaceae|Hypericaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Sterculia]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Urticaceae 
Latin name: //Urtica dioica// L.
Native range: Northern Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America

Back to [[Urticaceae|Urticaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae (sometimes placed in Phyllanthaceae)
Latin name: //Phyllanthus niruri// L.
Native range: Southern India

Back to [[Euphorbiaceae|Euphorbiaceae]]
Back to [[Phyllanthaceae|Phyllanthaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Strelitz]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Acanthaceae (acanthus family)
Latin name: //Strobilanthes// Blume
Native range: Southern China, South and Southeast Asia, and the Lesser Sunda Islands

Back to [[Acanthaceae|Acanthaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/*{{{*/
/*Mocha TiddlyWiki Theme*/
/*Version 1.0*/
/*Design and CSS originally by Anthonyy, ported to TiddlyWiki by Saq Imtiaz.*/
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
 #contentWrapper{
border: 0;
margin: 0 auto;
width: 960px;

			font-family: Lucida Grande, Tahoma, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; /* Lucida Grande for the Macs, Tahoma for the PCs */
font-size: 12px;
			line-height: 1.6em;
			color: #333;
}

.header {
 background: #fff; 
			padding-top: 10px;
			clear: both;

border-bottom: 4px solid #948979;
}

.justifyright {
 float: right;
 font-size: 11px;
}

.headerShadow {	padding: 2.6em 0em 0.5em 0em; }

.siteTitle {
			font-family: 'Trebuchet MS' sans-serif;
			font-weight: bold;
			font-size: 32px;
			color: #bf2a2a;
			margin-bottom: 30px;
			background-color: #FFF;
}

.siteTitle a{color:#bf2a2a; border-bottom:0px dotted #cc6633;}

.siteSubtitle {
	font-size: 1.2em;
        display: block;
        margin: .5em 3em; color: #555555;
}

#mainMenu {
position:relative;
float:left;
margin-bottom:1em;
display:inline;
text-align:left;
padding: 2em 0.5em 0.5em 0em;
width:13em;
font-size:1em;
}

#sidebar{
position:relative;
float:right;
margin-bottom:1em;
padding-top:2em;
display:inline;

}

#displayArea {
	margin: 0em 17em 0em 15em;
}

.tagClear {clear:none;}

#contentFooter {background:#172b17; color:#BFB6B3; clear: both; padding: 0.5em 1em;}

		
		#contentFooter a {
			color: #BFB6B3;
			border-bottom: 0px dotted #BFB6B3;
		}
		
		#contentFooter a:hover {
			color: #FFFFFF;
			background-color:none;
		}

		a,#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a{
			color:#bf2a2a;
			text-decoration: none;
		}

		a:hover,#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {
			color:#bf2a2a;
			background-color: #fff; 
		}

.viewer .button, .editorFooter .button{
	color: #bf2a2a;
	border: 0px solid #bf2a2a;
}

.viewer .button:hover, 
.editorFooter .button:hover{
	color: #fff;
	background: #bf2a2a;
	border-color: #fff;
}

.viewer .button:active, .viewer .highlight,.editorFooter .button:active, .editorFooter .highlight{color:#fff; background:#575352;border-color:#575352;}


		#mainMenu a {
			display: block;
			padding: 5px;
			border-bottom: 1px solid #CCC;
		}

		#mainMenu a:link, #navlist a:visited {
			color:#bf2a2a;
			text-decoration: none;
		}
		
		#mainMenu a:hover {
			background: #000000 url(arrow.gif) 96% 50% no-repeat;
			background-color: #F5F5F5;
			color:#bf2a2a;
		}
		
		#mainMenu a:hover, #mainMenu a:active, #mainMenu .highlight, #mainMenu .marked {
			background: #000000 url(arrow.gif) 96% 50% no-repeat;
			background-color: #F5F5F5;
			color:#bf2a2a;
		}

#mainMenu span {position:relative;}

#mainMenu br {display:none;}

#sidebarOptions a {
			color:#999;
			text-decoration: none;
		}

#sidebarOptions	a:hover {
			color:#4F4B45;
			background-color: #F5F5F5;border:1px solid #fff;
		}

#sidebarOptions {line-height:1.4em;}

		.tiddler {
			padding-bottom: 40px;
			border-bottom: 1px solid #DDDDDD; 
		}
.title {color:#bf2a2a;}
.subtitle, .subtitle a { color: #999999; font-size: 1.0em;margin:0.2em;}
.shadow .title{color:#948979;}

.selected .toolbar a {color:#999999;}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:#4F4B45; background:transparent;border:1px solid #fff;}

.toolbar .button:hover, .toolbar .highlight, .toolbar .marked, .toolbar a.button:active{color:#4F4B45; background:transparent;border:1px solid #fff;}

 .listLink,#sidebarTabs .tabContents {line-height:1.5em;}
 .listTitle {color:#888;}

#sidebarTabs .tabContents {background:#fff;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents .tiddlyLink, #sidebarTabs .tabContents .button{color:#999;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents .tiddlyLink:hover,#sidebarTabs .tabContents .button:hover{color:#4F4B45;background:#fff}

#sidebarTabs .tabContents .button:hover, #sidebarTabs .tabContents .highlight, #sidebarTabs .tabContents .marked, #sidebarTabs .tabContents a.button:active{color:#4F4B45;background:#fff}

.tabSelected{color:#fff; background:#948979;}

.tabUnselected {
 background: #ccc;
}

 .tabSelected, .tabSelected:hover {
 color: #fff;
 background: #948979;
 border: solid 1px #948979;
padding-bottom:1px;
}

 .tabUnselected {
 color: #999;
 background: #eee;
 border: solid 1px #ccc;
padding-bottom:1px;
}

#sidebarTabs .tabUnselected { border-bottom: none;padding-bottom:3px;}
#sidebarTabs .tabSelected{padding-bottom:3px;}


#sidebarTabs .tabUnselected:hover { border-bottom: none;padding-bottom:3px;color:#4F4B45}

#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {
	background: #fff; border:none;
	font-size: .9em;
}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {border:1px solid #999;}

.viewer blockquote {
	border-left: 3px solid #948979;
}

.viewer table {
	border: 2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];
}

.viewer th, thead td {
	background: #948979;
	border: 1px solid #948979;
	color: #fff;
}
.viewer pre {
	border: 1px solid #948979;
	background: #f5f5f5;
}

.viewer code {
	color: #2F2A29;
}

.viewer hr {
	border-top: dashed 1px #948979;
}

.editor input {
	border: 1px solid #948979;
}

.editor textarea {
	border: 1px solid #948979;
}

.popup {
	background: #948979;
	border: 1px solid #948979;
}

.popup li.disabled {
	color: #000;
}

.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {
	color: #eee;
	border: none;
}

.popup li a:hover {
	background: #575352;
	color: #fff;
	border: none;
}

.tagging, .tagged {
	border: 1px solid #eee;
	background-color: #F7F7F7;
}

.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {
	background-color: #eee;
	border: 1px solid #BFBAB3;
}

 .tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {
	color: #bbb;
}

.selected .tagging .listTitle, .selected .tagged .listTitle {
	color: #666; 
}

.tagging .button, .tagged .button {
		color:#aaa;
}
.selected .tagging .button, .selected .tagged .button {
		color:#4F4B45;
}

.highlight, .marked {background:transparent; color:#111; border:none; text-decoration:underline;}

.tagging .button:hover, .tagged .button:hover, .tagging .button:active, .tagged .button:active {
		border: none; background:transparent; text-decoration:underline; color:#000;
}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5 { color: #666; background: transparent; padding-bottom:2px; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; }
h1 {font-size:18px;}
h2 {font-size:16px;}
h3 {font-size: 14px;}

#messageArea {
	border: 4px solid #948979;
	background: #f5f5f5;
	color: #999;
        font-size:90%;
}

#messageArea a:hover { background:#f5f5f5;}

#messageArea .button{
	color: #666;
	border: 1px solid #CC6714;
}

#messageArea .button:hover {
	color: #fff;
	background: #948979;
	border-color: #948979;
}


* html .viewer pre {
	margin-left: 0em;
}

* html .editor textarea, * html .editor input {
	width: 98%;
}

.searchBar {float:right;font-size: 1.0em;}
.searchBar .button {color:#999;display:block;}
.searchBar .button:hover {border:1px solid #fff;color:#4F4B45;}
.searchBar input {			
                        background-color: #FFF;
			color: #999999;
			border: 1px solid #CCC;		margin-right:3px;
}

#sidebarOptions .button:active, #sidebarOptions .highlight {background:#F5F5F5;}

*html #contentFooter { padding:0.25em 1em 0.5em 1em;}

#noticeBoard {font-size: 0.9em; color:#999; position:relative;display:block;background:#fff; clear: both; margin-right:0.5em; margin-top:60px; padding:5px; border-bottom: 1px dotted #CCC; border-top: 1px dotted #CCC;}
#mainMenu #noticeBoard a,#mainMenu #noticeBoard .tiddlyLink {display:inline;border:none;padding:5px 2px;color:#DF9153 }
#noticeBoard a:hover {border:none;}	

#noticeBoard br {display:inline;}

#mainMenu #noticeBoard  .button{
	color: #666;
	border: 1px solid #DF9153;padding:2px;
}

#mainMenu #noticeBoard  .button:hover{
	color: #fff;
	background: #DF9153;
	border-color: #DF9153;
}

.searchbar {position:relative; width:11em;}
.searchbar .button{margin:0; width:11em;}
#header {display:block;} /%#header {display:inline-block;}%/     /% changes inline-block to block to work in newer browsers -- JDR %/
/*}}}*/
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae (cypress family)
Latin name: //Taxodium distichum// (L.) Rich.
Native range: North America
Conservation status: Lower risk/least concern

Back to [[Cupressaceae|Cupressaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Artemisia annua// L.
Native range: Asia

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Polypodiales (Blechnales)
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Latin name: //Polystichum munitum// (Kaulf.) C. Presl. (//Aspidium munitum// Kaulf.)
Native range: Central and western United States, Mexico, and western Canada

Back to [[Dryopteridaceae|Dryopteridaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae (fig or mulberry family)
Latin name: //Ficus sycomorus// L.
Native range: Southern Arabian peninsula and some parts of Africa

Back to [[Moraceae|Moraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Tamarica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: [[Caryophyllales]]
Family: Tamaricaceae
Latin name: //Tamarix// L.
Native range: Europe, Asia, and Africa
Conservation status: //T. androssowii// listed as least concern

Back to [[Tamaricaceae|Tamaricaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Yew family

<<list filter [tag[Taxa]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Kara Rogers is an author, a freelance science writer, and the senior editor of biomedical sciences at Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. She is a member of the National Association of Science Writers.

Rogers holds a B.S. in biology from Midway College and a Ph.D. in pharmacology/toxicology from the University of Arizona.

For more information on Rogers, visit her web site [[Nature. Science. Life.|http://www.nasw.org/users/kerogers/]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
//Out of Nature: Why Drugs From Plants Matter to the Future of Humanity//, University of Arizona Press, 2012

About half of all species under threat of extinction in the world today are plants. The loss of plant biodiversity is disturbing for many reasons, but especially because it is a reflection of the growing disconnect between humans and nature. Plants have been used for millennia in traditional systems of healing and have held a significant place in drug development for Western medicine as well. Despite the recent dominance of synthetic drug production, natural product discovery remains the backbone of drug development. As the diversity of life on Earth is depleted and increasing numbers of species become lost to extinction, we continue to lose opportunities to achieve advances in medicine.

Through stories of drug revelation in nature and forays into botany, human behavior, and conservation, Kara Rogers sheds light on the multiple ways in which humans, medicine, and plants are interconnected. With accessible and engaging writing, she explores the relationships between humans and plants, relating the stories of plant hunters of centuries past and examining the impact of human activities on the environment and the world's biodiversity. Rogers also highlights the role that plant-based products can play in encouraging conservation and protecting the heritage and knowledge of indigenous peoples.

//Out of Nature// provides a fresh perspective on modern drug innovation and its relationship with nature. The book delves into the complexity of biophilia—the innate human attraction to life in the natural world—and suggests that the reawakening of this drive is fundamental to expanding conservation efforts and improving medicine. Rogers's examination of plants, humans, and drug discovery also conveys a passionate optimism for the future of biodiversity and medicine. Including a collection of hand-drawn maps and plant illustrations created by the author, this well-researched narrative will inspire as well as inform. 
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Appendix: Plant Taxonomy List

Also see [[Plants by Common Name|Plants by Common Name]]
*<<slider Acorales Acorales "Acorales»">>
*<<slider Alismatales Alismatales "Alismatales»">>
*<<slider Apiales Apiales "Apiales»">>
*<<slider Aquifoliales Aquifoliales "Aquifoliales»">>
*<<slider Arecales Arecales "Arecales»">>
*<<slider Asparagales Asparagales "Asparagales»">>
*<<slider Asterales Asterales "Asterales»">>
*<<slider Brassicales Brassicales "Brassicales»">>
*<<slider Caryophyllales Caryophyllales "Caryophyllales»">>
*<<slider Ceratophyllales Ceratophyllales "Ceratophyllales»">>
*<<slider Commelinales Commelinales "Commelinales»">>
*<<slider Cornales Cornales "Cornales»">>
*<<slider Cucurbitales Cucurbitales "Cucurbitales»">>
*<<slider Dipsacales Dipsacales "Dipsacales»">>
*<<slider Ephedrales Ephedrales "Ephedrales»">>
*<<slider Ericales Ericales "Ericales»">>
*<<slider Fabales Fabales "Fabales»">>
*<<slider Gentianales Gentianales "Gentianales»">>
*<<slider Geraniales Geraniales "Geraniales»">>
*<<slider Ginkgoales Ginkgoales "Ginkgoales»">>
*<<slider Isoëtales Isoëtales "Isoëtales»">>
*<<slider Jungermanniales Jungermanniales "Jungermanniales»">>
*<<slider Lamiales Lamiales "Lamiales»">>
*<<slider Laurales Laurales "Laurales»">>
*<<slider Liliales Liliales "Liliales»">>
*<<slider Magnoliales Magnoliales "Magnoliales»">>
*<<slider Malpighiales Malpighiales "Malpighiales»">>
*<<slider Malvales Malvales "Malvales»">>
*<<slider Myrtales Myrtales "Myrtales»">>
*<<slider Nymphaeales Nymphaeales "Nymphaeales»">>
*<<slider Oxalidales Oxalidales "Oxalidales»">>
*<<slider Pinales Pinales "Pinales»">>
*<<slider Poales Poales "Poales»">>
*<<slider Polypodiales Polypodiales "Polypodiales»">>
*<<slider Proteales Proteales "Proteales»">>
*<<slider Ranunculales Ranunculales "Ranunculales»">>
*<<slider Rosales Rosales "Rosales»">>
*<<slider Sapindales Sapindales "Sapindales»">>
*<<slider Saxifragales Saxifragales "Saxifragales»">>
*<<slider Solanales Solanales "Solanales»">>
*<<slider Zingiberales Zingiberales "Zingiberales»">>
*<<slider Boraginaceae Boraginaceae "Boraginaceae»">>

Sources: USDA Plants Database; USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network; Integrated Taxonomic Information System; Global Biodiversity Information Facility; and various, listed in [[Resources]]. Information on conservation status from 2010, all conservation data from the [[IUCN Red List of Threatened Species|http://www.iucnredlist.org/]].
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Thea]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)
Latin name: //Meconopsis betonicifolia// Franch.
Native range: Northeastern India, Tibet, and Myanmar (Burma)

Back to [[Papaveraceae|Papaveraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae (nightshade family)
Latin name: //Nicotiana// L.
Native range: Tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas

Back to [[Solanaceae|Solanaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
/%
|Name|ToggleRightSidebar|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ToggleRightSidebar|
|Version|2.0.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|script|
|Requires|InlineJavascriptPlugin|
|Overrides||
|Description|show/hide right sidebar (MainMenu)|

Usage: <<tiddler ToggleRightSidebar with: "label">>

Config settings:
	config.options.chkShowRightSidebar (true)
	config.options.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelShow (◄)
	config.options.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelHide (►)

%/<script label="$1" title="show/hide right sidebar content">
	var co=config.options;
	if (co.chkShowRightSidebar=='undefined') co.chkShowRightSidebar=true;
	co.chkShowRightSidebar=!co.chkShowRightSidebar;
	var sb=document.getElementById('sidebar'); if (!sb) return;
	sb.style.display=co.chkShowRightSidebar?'block':'none';
	document.getElementById('displayArea').style.marginRight=co.chkShowRightSidebar?'':'1em';
	saveOptionCookie('chkShowRightSidebar');
	var labelShow=co.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelShow||'&#x25C4;';
	var labelHide=co.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelHide||'&#x25BA;';
	if (typeof(place)!='undefined' && '$1'=='$'+'1') {
		place.innerHTML=co.chkShowRightSidebar?labelHide:labelShow;
		place.title=(co.chkShowRightSidebar?'hide':'show')+' right sidebar';
	}
	var sm=document.getElementById('storyMenu'); if (sm) config.refreshers.content(sm);
</script><script>
	var co=config.options;
	if (co.chkShowRightSidebar=='undefined') co.chkShowRightSidebar=true;
	var sb=document.getElementById('sidebar'); if (!sb) return;
	sb.style.display=co.chkShowRightSidebar?'block':'none';
	document.getElementById('displayArea').style.marginRight=co.chkShowRightSidebar?'':'1em';
	if ('$1'=='$'+'1') {
		var labelShow=co.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelShow||'&#x25C4;';
		var labelHide=co.txtToggleRightSideBarLabelHide||'&#x25BA;';
		place.lastChild.innerHTML=co.chkShowRightSidebar?labelHide:labelShow;
		place.lastChild.title=(co.chkShowRightSidebar?'hide':'show')+' right sidebar';
	}
</script>
 Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae (magnolia family)
Latin name: //Liriodendron tulipfera// L.
Native range: Eastern North America

Back to [[Magnoliaceae|Magnoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)
Latin name: //Curcuma longa// L.
Native range: India

Back to [[Zingiberaceae|Zingiberaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Apiaceae, or Umbellifer family

<<list filter [tag[Umbell]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Urtica]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Valerian family

<<list filter [tag[Valeriana]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<span macro="tiddler ReplaceDoubleClick with: shift doubleclick"></span>
<!--}}}-->
Violet and pansy family

<<list filter [tag[Viola]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Commelinales
Family: Commelinaceae (spiderwort family)
Latin name: //Tradescantia virginiana// L.
Native range: United States

Back to [[Commelinaceae|Commelinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Latin name: //Sauromatum guttatum// Schott (//Typhonium venosum// (Aiton) Hett. & P.C. Boyce)
Native range: Africa and temperate and tropical Asia

Back to [[Araceae|Araceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Alismatales
Family: Hydrocharitaceae (tape-grass family)
Latin name: //Elodea// Michx.
Native range: North America

Back to [[Hydrocharitaceae|Hydrocharitaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Dipsacales
Family: Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family)
Latin name: //Weigela florida// (Bunge) A. DC.
Native range: Northern China and Korea

Back to [[Caprifoliaceae|Caprifoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Latin name: //Tsuga heterophylla// (Raf.) Sarg.
Native range: Western United States and western Canada
Conservation status: Lower risk/least concern

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae (pine family)
Latin name: //Thuja plicata// Donn ex. D. Don
Native range: Western United States and western Canada
Conservation status: Lower risk/least concern

Back to [[Pinaceae|Pinaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Liliales
Family: Melanthiaceae
Latin name: //Trillium grandiflorum// (Michx.) Salisb.
Native range: North America

Back to [[Melanthiaceae|Melanthiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Latin name: //Marah macrocarpus// Greene
Native range: Southwestern United States

Back to [[Cucurbitaceae|Cucurbitaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae (willow family)
Latin name: //Salix// L.
Native range: Asia, Europe, northern Africa, and North America
Conservation status: //S. canariensis// C.Sm. ex Link lower risk/last concern; //S. floridana// Chapman and //S. magnifica// Hemsl. vulnerable; //S. kusanoi// (Hayata) Schneider endangered; and //S. tarraconensis// Pau critically endangered

Back to [[Salicaceae|Salicaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Latin name: //Jasminum nudiflorum// Lindl.
Native range: China

Back to [[Oleaceae|Oleaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae (amaranth family; sometimes placed in Chenopodiaceae)
Latin name: //Krascheninnikovia lanata// (Pursh) A. Meeuse & A. Smit
Native range: Western and central North America

Back to [[Amaranthaceae|Amaranthaceae]]
Back to [[Chenopodiaceae|Chenopodiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae (rose family)
Latin name: //Cotoneaster conspicuus// Comber. ex Marq.
Native range: East Asia

Back to [[Rosaceae|Rosaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage, or mustard, family)
Latin name: //Isatis tinctoria// L.
Native range: Northern Africa, western Asia and China, and Europe

Back to [[Brassicaceae|Brassicaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Artemisia// L.
Native range: Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae; daisy family)
Latin name: //Smallanthus sonchifolius// (Poepp. & Endl.) H. Rob.
Native range: Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia

Back to [[Asteraceae|Asteraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)
Latin name: //Meconopsis integrifolia// (Maxim.) Franch.
Native range: Asia

Back to [[Papaveraceae|Papaveraceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Aquifoliales
Family: Aquifoliaceae (holly family)
Latin name: //Ilex paraguariensis// A. St. Hil.
Native range: South America
Conservation status: Lower risk/near threatened

Back to [[Aquifoliaceae|Aquifoliaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae (coffee family)
Latin name: //Pausinystalia yohimbe// (K. Schum.) Pierre ex Beille
Native range: West Africa

Back to [[Rubiaceae|Rubiaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)
Latin name: //Eucalyptus loxophleba// Benth.
Native range: Western Australia

Back to [[Myrtaceae|Myrtaceae]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
Ginger family

<<list filter [tag[Zingibera]]>>
Back to [[The Plants|The Plants]]
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
<<list filter [tag[Zingiberal]]>>
<<tiddler HideTiddlerTags>><<tiddler HideTiddlerSubtitle>><<tiddler HideTiddlerToolbar>>
[[TiddlyWiki|http://www.tiddlywiki.com]] © Osmosoft
{{justifyright{
[img[Twitter|Pics/twitter_nature_icon.png][http://twitter.com/#!/karaerogers]][img[Facebook|Pics/facebook_nature_icon.png][http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100001872712220#!/profile.php?id=100001872712220&v=wall]]
}}}
//{{{
//This ensures that the footer sticks to the bottom of the screen when there are no tiddlers open. If that is not desirable, it can be deleted.
function setFooter() {
         if (document.getElementById && document.getElementById("contentFooter") ) {
            var windowHeight=findWindowHeight();
         if (windowHeight>0) {
            var contentHeight= document.getElementById('mainMenu').offsetHeight + document.getElementById("header").offsetHeight + document.getElementById("contentFooter").offsetHeight;
            var menu= document.getElementById('mainMenu');
            if (windowHeight-(contentHeight)>=0) {
               menu.style.position='relative';
               menu.style.marginBottom=(windowHeight-(contentHeight))+'px';
               }
            else {
                 menu.style.position='';
                 menu.style.marginBottom='';
                 }
            }
         }
}
window.onresize = function() {
  setFooter();
}

Story.prototype.refreshTiddler_footerhack=Story.prototype.refreshTiddler;
Story.prototype.refreshTiddler = function (title,template,force)
{    
var theTiddler = Story.prototype.refreshTiddler_footerhack.apply(this,arguments);
setFooter();
   return theTiddler;}

//}}}
//{{{
config.options.chkSinglePageMode = true;
config.options.chkSinglePagePermalin = true;
config.options.chkShowRightSidebar =false;
//}}}